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V       MAY  and  MAY 

Whitebridge,  Semley, 

Shaftesbury  SP7  9QP 

Music  and  Music  Literature 

ZH  (UXdeter  (^UBXcianR 

Edited  bv 


Master  Musicians 

Bach.     By  C.  F.  Abdy  Williams. 

\_2nd  Edition. 
Beethoven.     By  Frederick  J.  Crowest. 

[4//^  Edition. 
Brahms.     By  J.  Lawrence  Erb. 
Chopin.    By  J.  Cuthbert  Hadden. 
Handel.     By  C.  F.  Abdy  Williams. 

[2nd  Edition. 
Haydn.     By  J.  Cuthbert  Hadden. 
Mendelssohn.    By  Stephen  S.  Stratton. 

[2fid  Edition. 
Mozart.     By  Eustace  J.  Breakspeare. 
Schumann.     By  Annie  W.  Patterson. 
Schubert.     By  E.  Duncan. 
Wagner.     By  Charles  A.  Lidgey. 

[T,rd  Edition. 



J.   Lawrence  Erb 

With   Illustrations  and  Portraits 

London  :     J.    M.    Dent   &    Co. 

New  York  :    E.  P.  Dutton  &  Co. 

All  Rights  Reserved 


11  EL, 





The  man  who  perpetrates  a  new  book  upon  the  long- 
suffering  public  owes  that  public  an  apology.  Mine — 
which  I  trust  will  suffice— is  that  there  does  not  exist 
in  the  English  language,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  a  complete 
up-to-date  biography  of  Brahms.  This  little  volume 
is  an  attempt  to  supply  the  deficiency.  The  work 
was  conceived  and  carried  out  as  a  labour  of  love, 
and  was  meant  to  give  to  our  English-speaking  public 
a  correct  idea,  so  far  as  could  be  gathered  from  the 
writings  of  those  who  knew,  of  the  principal  facts 
concerning  the  character  and  achievements  of  one  whom 
all  must  acknowledge  as  a  Master  Artist. 

To  the  authors  of  the  works  which  have  been 
consulted  in  the  preparation  of  this  book  (the  list  to 
be  exhaustive  would  be  exhausting  as  well)  I  desire  to 
extend  my  acknowledgment  for  the  aid  I  have  derived 
from  them.  To  the  readers  I  extend  the  hope  that  they 
may  bring  to  the  perusal  of  the  volume  an  unbiased 
judgment,  and  that  they  may  lay  it  down  with  a  new 
sense  of  the  greatness  of  one  of  the  most  faithful 
labourers  for  the  advancement  of  all  that  is  true  in  Art — 

Johannes  Brahms. 

J.  L.  E. 

Brooklyn,  New  York. 



Date  of  Birth — His  Father — His  Mother — Father's  Circumstances 
Poor — Education — Changes  of  Residence — Persecutions — 
His  Brother  and  Sister — Youthful  Adventure — Normal 
Child — Home  Life  —  First  Music  Study  —  Change  of 
Teachers — Fond  of  Books — Tin  Soldiers — First  Ap- 
pearance— Programme — Further  Concerts — The  First 
Tour — Remenyi — Early  Privations — First  Success  as 
Pianist — Kreutzer  Sonata — His  Thorough  Training — 
Meeting  Joachim — Hanover  and  Politics — Meeting  Liszt 
— Unfortunate  Episode — Lost  Sonata — To  Dusseldorf 
— Meets  Schumann — Dietrich — Brahms'  Personality — 
Hanover  Again  —  "Neuc  Bahnen"  —  Gewandhaus  — 
Centre  of  Controversy — "Lohengrin" — First  Works 
— Third  Sonata — Variation  Form — Sceptics — Schumann's 
Friendship — Aid  to  Madame  Schumann — Visits  to  En- 
denich — Personal  Appearance — Characteristics — Pranks 
— Rubinstein — Mannerisms  as  a  Pianist — Manner  of 
Composing  —  The  Period  of  Growth  —  Schumann's 
Death — Op.  lo  appears — First  Piano  Concerto — Serenades 
and  Trio — More  New  Compositions — Advance  over 
Former  Work  —  Visit  to  Switzerland  —  "  Handel 
Variations"  and  "  Marienlieder " — Ladies'  Quartet 
— Oldenburg  —  Miinster-am-Stein  —  Great  Teaser — 
Oldenburg  again — Affaire  du  Coeur — Publications  of 
1862  —  Unfavourable  Reception  in  Vienna — New 
Friends  —  The  Ice  melts  —  A  Complete  Success 
— Personal  Popularity — Birthday  Gift — Asks  Advice 
— Leaves    the     Sing-Akademic — Schumann     Four-hand 



Variations — Publications  of  1863 — New  Works  of  1864 
— Impudent  Purse  —  Organ  Fugue  and  Folk-songs — 
'"Volks-Kinderlieder  "  —  Another  Concert  Tour — 
"Arrived"  at  Last — The  Magelone  Lieder  —  Piano 
Quintet — Switzerland  again — Death  of  Frau  Brahms — 
Brahm's  "  Bride  " — Publications  of  1866 — New  Triumphs 
— Brahms  on  a  Pleasure  Trip — Brahms'  Beard — Gratz — 
Important  Event — "German  Requiem" — Great  En- 
thusiasm —  Opening  Chorus  and  Second  Number — 
Remaining  Numbers — Brahms'  Gathering — Later  Perfor- 
mances—  Inspiration  —  Strong  Personality — Publications 
of  1868— Full  Fruition  (1869-1897) — Works  of  1869— 
'' Liebeslieder  Waltzes"  —  Hungarian  Dances — 
"  Rhapsodie  " — Pianoforte  Concerto  succeeds  in  Vienna 
— New  Masterpieces  —  "  Triumphlied  "  —  "  ^Esthetic 
Women  " — Publications  of  187 1 — Gesellschaft  der  Musik- 
freunde — Still  Delicate-looking — Works  of  1873 — "  Haydn 
Variations" — Later  Successes  of  "  Triumphlied  " — First 
Decoration — Works  of  1874 — "  Requiem  "  and  "  Ring  " 
— Last  Gesellschaft  Concerts — Public  Ceremony — Ziegel- 
hausen — Popular  with  Children — Students'  Prank — 
Aristocratic  Friends — Sassnitz — First  Symphony — Works 
of  1875  and  1876 — Doctor  of  Music — Brahms'  Thesis 
— Brahms  in  England  —  "Second  Symphony" — First 
Italian  Journey — Doctor  of  Philosophy — Violin  Concerto 
and  Sonata  —  Motets  and  Piano  Pieces  —  Schumann 
Denkmal — Violin  Sonata  and  Rhapsodies — Called  to 
London—"  Chorale-vorspiel  " — Nanie  Keller — "Third 
Symphony  " — Concerto,  Songs  and  Trio — "  (Quintet  " 
and  "  Gesang  der  Parzen  " — Brahms  Concert  at  Olden- 
burg—  Many  Vocal  Works  —  "Fourth  Symphony" 
— Honours — Thun— Fondness  for  Coffee — Visits  and 
Visitors — Letters — A  Good  Word  for  Wagner — The  Dog 
"Argos" — Double  Concerto — Martucci — Rossini — Intense 
Patriot — More  Honours — Brahms  as  a  Nurse — Reverence 
for  Masters  of  Art — Loved  the  Italians — Musical  Centre 
of  Vienna — Last  Works — The  Last  Italian  Journey — 
"  Fest- und  Gedenkspriiche  " — Meiningen  and  Miihlfeld 
— Royal  Friends — Last  Swiss  Trip — Madame  Schumann's 
Death — "  Only  a  Commonplace  Jaundice" — Last  Public 
Appearance — Failing  Health — Death — His  Estate — His 
Heirs — Statue  and  Museum  .... 




Appearance  and  Health  —  Walking  and  Mountain  Climb  - 
ing  —  Appetite  and  Unconventionality  —  Powerful 
Personality — A  Gungl  March — Spectacles — As  a  Singer 
and  Critic — A  Genial  Friend — Indifferent  to  Criticism — 
His  Father's  Brusqueness — Disliked  Emotional  Display — 
Goetz's  "Treasure" — Music  for  the  Theatre — Some 
Bright  Criticisms — Brahms  and  Rubinstein — Unfortunate 
Composers  —  Raff — His  Broad  Sympathies — Profound 
Scholarship — Kindliness  to  Servants — Modest  and  Tact- 
ful—  The  Tonkiinstlerverein — Gispy  Bands — Sixtieth 
Birthday  Celebration  — "  Lion-hunter  " — Incident  at  Gratz 
— Summing  up — Letter-writing — Leeds  Festival — Auto- 
graph Hunters — Devotion  to  Children — Portraits  and  a 
Subterfuge — Amateur  Portraits  ;  and  Mirrors — Admirer 
of  Johann  Strauss — Cheerful  Disposition — Not  Intimate 
with  Family — "A  Bottle  of  Bach" — Haydn  and 
Beethoven — Hanslick's  Critiques — Brahms  as  a  Teacher 
— True  Modesty — Worked  Slowly — "Whistle  a  Song  " 
— Helping  Young  Musicians — Advice  to  Beginners — 
Liberties  with  Compositions — Manner  of  Composing — 
Music  for  the  Masses — Temperance  Societies — Male 
Choruses  and  Brass  Bands — Too  much  Piano — Singing 
in  the  Schools — Concerning  Marriage — Unmarried — 
"  Barbarian  " — Fond  of  the  Theatre — Theories  concerning 
Opera — Operatic  Possibilities — "Kiinig  Hirsch" — 
"  Konig  Hirsch"  Defunct — Marriage  and  Opera — As  a 
Wagnerite — Wagner  as  a  Brahmsite — Praise  of  Wagner 
— Attitude  towards  Wagner — Mozart  and  Verdi — Goetz's 
Opera    .......  o? 


His  Versatility —  Exponent  of  Absolute  Music  —  Much 
in  Common  with  Browning — Thoroughly  Modern — 
Early  Works  Romantic  in  Tendency — Master  of  Detail 
— As  a  Pianist — His  Playing  in  1880 — Asa  Conductor — 
Last    Great     Classical     Composer — Climax     of   Modern 



Musical  Thought — Spitta's  Estimate — Repeated  Hearing 
Necessary  —  No  Concessions  —  Sense  of  Rhythm — 
Characteristics  of  Symphonies — Works  for  Piano — Songs 
— Not  an  Imitator — Authors  of  His  Songs — Great  Number 
of  Songs — Best  known  Songs — Choral  Works — Chamber 
Music — No  Ground  for  Comparison  with  Wagner — Final 
Rating — Tschaikowsky  not  a  Brahmsite — But  liked 
Brahms — Brahms'  Attitude  toward  Tschaikowsky — 
Dvorak's  Gratitude  —  Growth  in  Popularity  —  Anti- 
Brahmsite  Verdict — J.F.  Runciman — H.  T.  Finck — Con- 
sistently Painstaking — Musical  Logician — No  Appeal  to 
the  Popular  Mind — Educate  Audiences  up  to  Brahms 
— Uncompromisingly  Classical — Details  of  Treatment — 
Not  the  Greatest  Musician — Brahms  and  Other  Com- 
posers— Brahms  and  his  Contemporaries — Brahms  as 
Colourist — His  Chief  Musical  Sin — The  Symphonies — 
The  Choral  Works — Chamber  Music,  Concertos  and 
Sonatas — Pianoforte  Works — Songs — Compositions  too 
Difficult — Summing  up — Future  of  Music  .  119 


List  of  Compositions  ....■•        I49 


Bibliography     .  •  •  ■  ...        173 

Index  .  .  •  ■       ^77 

List  of  Illustrations 


Johannes  Brahms  {reproduced  by  permission 
of  the  Proprietors  of '■^ Harmonie^^  from  the 
Original  Photograph  in  the  possession  of  the 
Herrn  Hofphotogr.  C.  Brasch  of  Berlin). 
Photogravure.  Frontispiece 

Brahms'   Birthplace   {reproduced  by  permission 

of  tJie  Proprietors  of  ^^  Harmonie")  .    facing  4 

Brahms  at  the  Age    of  18    {from  a   Portrait 

by  If  eft)         ....    facing         18 

Johannes     Brahms     {from    a     Photograph    by 

Marie  Fellinger)        .  .  .    facing         66 

Facsimile  of  Handwriting      .  .    facing        92 

Silhouette  of  Brahms  {reproduced  by  per- 
mission of  the  Proprietors  of  '■'■  Hannonie^^ 
after  a  Drawi7i^  from  the  book  on  R.  Lechner 
by  Wilh.  Muller)       .  .  .  .118 

Facsimile  of  the  Score  of  the  "  Weigenlied" 

facitig    136-7 





Johannes   Brahms  '    was    born    on    Tuesday,  May    7, 

1833,  in  the  city  of  Hamburg — the  birthplace  also  of 

Mendelssohn — the  first  of  the  two  sons  of 

Johann  Jacob  Brahms.     Kalbeck  states  that         Date  of 

the  sister,  Elizabeth,  was  the  eldest,  Johannes  Birth 

being  the  second  child  ;  at  any  rate  Fritz  was 

the  youngest.     Johannes  was  baptized  on  May  26  in 

St  Michael's  Church. 

Johann  Brahms  was  himself  a  fine  musician,  and 
played  the  double-bass  for  a  time  at  the  Karl-Schultze 
Theatre,  and  later  in  the  Stadt-Theatre  or- 
chestra. He  had  filled  the  office  of  Meister  His 
der  Stadtmusik  (Municipal  Musical  Director)  Father 
in  his  native  town  of  Heide,  in  Schleswick- 
Holstein,  where  he  was  born  June  i,  1806,  and  had 
come  to  Hamburg  to  try  his  fortune  in  the  orchestra 

'  The  family  name  seems  to  have  been  spelled  originally 
Brahmst ;  in  fact,  Johannes'  name  appeared  in  that  form  upon 
a  concert  programme  in   1849. 

A  I 



where  Handel  had  once  played  second  violin.  His 
father  (Johann's)  was  opposed  to  a  musical  career  for 
his  son,  so  the  boy  used  to  steal  away  once  a  week  and 
take  lessons  of  the  town  musician,  in  this  way  learning 
to  play  on  the  viola,  violin,  'cello,  flute  and  horn.  The 
father  was  much  scandalised  upon  one  occasion  to  see 
Johann  playing  the  viola  at  a  dance  in  a  neighbouring 
village.  This  event  seemed  to  clear  the  atmosphere 
somewhat,  and  after  that  the  opposition  to  a  musical 
career  gradually  vanished.  In  1826  Johann  removed 
to  Hamburg.  In  addition  to  his  duties  in  the  theatres 
above-mentioned,  he  was  also  contra-bassist  in  the 
Philharmonic  Concerts,  and  was  connected  for  many 
years,  until  it  disbanded  in  1867,  as  a  horn  player  with 
the  Hamburg  Biirgerwehr  (city  militia).  He  lived  the 
usual  life  of  an  orchestral  musician,  picking  up  odd  jobs 
wherever  he  could  find  them,  never  overpaid,  and  often 
underfed.  He  was  considered  in  the  '40's  one  of  the 
best  contra-bassists  in  Hamburg,  and  a  thorough  artist. 

His  wife,  Johannes'  mother,  was  a  native  of  Hamburg 
(born  1789),  Johanna  Henrika  Christine  Nissen  by  name, 
a  woman  of  affectionate,   noble   character, 
His  who,  it  will  be  seen,  was   seventeen  years 

Mother  older  than  her  husband.  She  was  the 
daughter  of  Peter  Radeloff  Nissen,  and 
with  her  sister,  Christina  Frederika,  kept  a  store  for 
the  sale  of  Holland  goods  and  notions,  and  took  in 
lady  lodgers.  Johanna's  special  work  was  to  attend  to 
the  wants  of  the  lodgers,  while  her  sister  kept  the  shop. 


but  their  spare  moments  were  generally  spent  together 
in  the  shop.  She  was  not  sturdy,  but,  on  the  contrary, 
delicate  from  childhood.  She  and  Herr  Brahms  were 
married  on  June  9,  1830,  and  Frau  Brahms  moved  from 
her  home  on  the  Ulrikusstrasse  to  their  first  residence  in 
the  Backerbreitergang,  where  their  first  child,  Elizabeth 
Wilhelmine  Louise,  was  born.  This  event  made  larger 
quarters  necessary,  and  they  removed  to  the  Anselar 
Platz,  back  of  the  Specksgang  Towers,  an  interesting, 
old-fashioned  building,  where  Johannes  was  born  in  a 
room  on  the  first  floor. 

Johann  Brahms  was  a  versatile  musician,  but  his 
circumstances  were  of  the  humblest,  so  that  in  summer- 
time, when  the  theatres  were  closed,  he 
formed  one  of  a  sextet  who  played  in  a  Father's 
summer  garden,  "  passing  the  hat "  for  Circutn- 
their  compensation.      As  a  boy,  Johannes  stances 

arranged     for     them     marches     and    other  Poor 

popular  music,  and  even  tried  his  hand  at 
original  compositions. 

His    education    was    necessarily   somewhat    limited 
owing  to   the  straitened    circumstances   of 
the  family,  though  he  was  sent  at  the  age    Education 
of  six  to  the  school  of  Heinrich  Friedrich 
Boss,    not    far    from    the    Brahms'   residence    in    the 

The  family  had  hitherto  led  a  rather  roving  existence, 
each  new  arrival  making  larger  quarters  imperative,  so 
that   when  Fritz  Friedrich  came,  on  March  26,    1S35, 



it    became    necessary   to    seek   a    new    home,    which 

was  found  with  the  Detmerings  (Frau 
Changes  Brahms'  sister  was  now  Frau  Detmering) 
of  in   the   Ulrikusstrasse.      This   arrangement 

Residence     lasted  for  some  time,  until  the  Brahms  family 

removed  to  the  Dammthorwall,  and  later  to 
No.  74  Fuhlentwiete,  where  they  finally  settled. 

In  1847  he  attended  a  good  Biirgerschule  (citizen's 
or  public  school),  and  in  1848  a  better,  that  of  Herr 

When  he  was  eight  years  old  his  father  requested 
the  teachers  to  be  easy  with  him  because  of  the  time 

that  he  must  take  for  his  musical  studies. 
Persecu-  On  the  contrary,  they  made  his  work  harder, 
tions  and   held   him   up   to   the   ridicule   of   his 

Brahms'  boyhood  days  passed  uneventfully.    He  grew 
up  with  his  brother   Fritz  and  sister   Elise   amid   the 

poorest  surroundings.  Fritz  turned  to  music 
His  (the  Neue  Zeitschrift  mentions  his  successful 

Brother        debut  at  Hamburg  in  January  1864),  was  a 
and  Sister    piano  teacher  in  Hamburg,  lived  for  many 

years  in  Caracas,  and  died  at  an  early  age 
in  Hamburg  of  a  disease  of  the  brain.  Elise  married 
a  watchmaker,  much  to  Johannes'  disappointment,  and 
has  also  been  dead  some  time. 

Like  his  sister  (who  retained  the  trouble  all  through 
life),  Johannes  was  subject,  until  early  manhood,  to 
nervous   headaches   that  troubled   him   sometimes    for 



To /ace  page  4 


days  at  a  time ;  otherwise  he  was  all  his  life  free  from 
sickness.  When  he  was  ten  years  old  he 
met  with  a  severe  accident  on  the  way  to  Youthful 
school.  A  drosky,  coming  rapidly  along  Adventure 
the  street,  knocked  him  down,  and  a 
wheel  passed  over  his  chest.  He  was  six  weeks  re- 
covering from  the  effects  of  this  accident. 

The  courts  and  alleys  of  the  poor  quarter  in  which 
he   lived   were   always   resounding   with   the   songs   of 
children,  in  which  he  joined  heartily,  with 
his  high  soprano  voice.     He  was  a  playful,        Normal 
cheerful  boy,  healthy  and  normal,  without  Child 

a  trace  of  the  aberrations  which   so  often 
characterise  the  childhood  of  genius. 

The  rooms  of  the  family  were  dark  and  damp,  and 
the    fare    must    at    times   have   been    very 
meagre,  for  Brahms  on  one  occasion  said  Home 

to  his  sister,  "  Please  don't  pour  so  much  Life 

water  into  the  soup ;  I  would  rather  give 
you  a  little  more  money."  (There  is  reason  to  believe 
that  their  fortunes  improved  later.)  However,  theirs 
was  a  happy  lot,  with  a  kind  father  and  devoted  mother, 
who  is  described  by  one  of  Brahms'  Diisseldorf  friends 
as  "  His  dear,  old  mother,  whose  kindness  of  heart  was 
only  equalled  by  her  simple  manners.  Her  Johannes 
was  always  the  inexhaustible  subject  of  conversation."  As 
a  boy,  Johannes  worked  and  studied  with  his  father,  and 
used  to  learn  lessons  from  books  with  his  mother,  and 
play  "  four-hands  "  with  her  at  the  piano  "just  for  fun." 




There  was  never  any  doubt  as  to  his  becoming  a 
musician.  From  early  childhood  he  learned  everything 
his  father  could  teach  him,  read  everything 
First  he  could  lay  hands  on,  practised  with  un- 

Music  deviating  enthusiasm,  and   filled   reams  of 

Study  paper  with  exercises  and  variations.      The 

soul  of  the  child  went  out  in  music.  He 
played  scales  long  before  he  knew  the  notes,  and  great 
was  his  joy  when  at  the  age  of  six  he  discovered  the 
possibility  of  making  a  melody  visible  by  placing  black 
dots  on  lines  at  different  intervals,  inventing  a  system 
of  notation  of  his  own  before  he  had  been  made 
acquainted  with  the  method  which  the  musical  world 
had  been  using  for  some  centuries.  Not  long  after  this, 
while  still  in  his  seventh  year,  he  was  placed  under  the 
instruction  of  Otto  Cossell  (1813-1865),  his  first  piano- 
forte teacher,  who  was  very  well  satisfied  with  him  as 
a  piano  pupil,  but  lamented  the  fact  that  he  wasted  so 
much  time  at  his  "everlasting  composing."  (It  had 
been  his  father's  desire  that  Johannes  might  be  an 
orchestral  musician  like  himself,  but  the  child's  tastes 
turned  so  strongly  toward  the  piano  that  the  father 
wisely  gave  in.) 

When  Johannes  was  in  his  tenth  year  he  had  made 

such     remarkable     progress     that     Cossell 

Change  of    thought   best   to   secure   a  more  advanced 

Teachers       instructor,  so  he  was  put  under  the  care  of 

Eduard    Marxsen   (Cossell's   own   teacher), 

the  Royal  Music  Director  at  Altona,  who  took  him  un- 



willingly  at  first,  but  with  whom  he  remained  for  a 
number  of  years.  Marxsen  was  at  once  attracted  by 
the  rare  keenness  of  Brahms'  intellect.  His  study  in- 
cluded pianoforte  and  composition,  in  both  of  which 
branches  he  early  developed  marked  ability.  It  was 
to  Marxsen  that  Brahms  owed  the  inspiration  to  become 
a  composer,  also  his  great  improvement  as  a  pianist. 
Before  he  really  knew  how  to  score  thoroughly,  he 
used  to  practise  putting  long  pieces  from  single  parts 
into  full  score,  but  under  Marxsen  theoretical  study 
was  carried  on  systematically. 

In  early  youth   the  boy  Johannes   began  to  collect 
a  library.     Money  was  not  plentiful,  so  he  bought  many 
of  his  books  from  the  second-hand  dealers 
who  frequent  the  bridges  at  Hamburg,  and         Fond  of 
occasionally  ran  across  some  remarkable  old  Books 

works  in  this  way — among  others  a  copy  of 
Mattheson's  Vollkommener  Kapellmeister. 

As  a  child  he  was  passionately  fond  of  tin  soldiers, 
and  could  scarcely  cease  playing  with  them 
even  when  he  was   grown  to  young  man-  Tin 

hood.     At  twenty-eight  he  still  kept  them        Soldiers 
locked    up    in    his    desk,    unable    to    part 
with  them. 

When  he  was  fourteen  years  of  age  Johannes  made 
his  debut  as  a  pianist  (some  say  against  his  teacher's 
will),  and  was  greeted  with  great  applause.  He  early 
showed  a  love  for  the  folk-songs  of  his  fatherland, 
which  he  used  as  themes  for  many  remarkable    varia- 




tions — a  musical  form,  by  the  way,   which  Brahms  by 

his  masterly  treatment  rescued  from  the 
First  disrepute  into  which  it  had  fallen.     In  his 

Appear-       first  published  work,  the  Pianoforte  Sonata 
ance  (Op.   i),  he  uses   an  old   folk-song,   "Ver- 

stohlen  geht  der  Mond  auf,"  as  the  basis  of 
the  slow  movement. 

The  programme  of  the  first  concert  included  : — 

"  Adagio  and  Rondo  "  (from  a  Concerto) 

Pro-  "  Fzutsisie  on  m//iam  Te//"         Dohler. 

gramme        "  Serenade,"  for  left  hand     .         Marxsen. 

"6tude"     ....         Herz. 

"Fugue"  ....  J.S.Bach. 
and  his  own  "Variations  on  a  Volkslied." 

A  speculative  impresario  at  this  time  was  desirous 
of  arranging  a  concert  tour  for  the  boy  Brahms,  but  his 

teacher  protested  with  all  his  power,  and 
Further  fortunately  succeeded  in  preventing  the 
Concerts       threatened  misfortune.     Two  more  concerts 

within  a  few  months  completed  his  public 
appearances  during  this  period ;  then  he  went  back  to 
work,  devoting  his  time  more  especially  to  the  study 
of  composition. 

It  was  not  until  five  years  later,  in  1853, 
The  First  that  he  for  the  first  time  left  Hamburg  and 
Tour  undertook  a  tour  with  Eduard  Remenyi,  the 

Hungarian  gipsy  violinist,  for  the  purpose  of 
introducing  himself  and  his  works.     Remenyi  had  pre- 



viously  met  Brahms  in  Hamburg,  where  the  young 
pianist  had  accompanied  him  with  great  force  and  fire 
in  some  of  the  now  well-known  Hungarian  Dances. 

These  two,  Brahms  and  Remenyi,  died  within  about 
a  year  of  each  other,  Remenyi  dropping  dead  on  the 
stage  of  a  vaudeville  theatre  in  San  Francisco 
immediately  after  finishing  a  solo.  He  had  Remenyi 
always  been  proud  of  the  part  he  had  played 
in  bringing  Brahms  before  the  public,  and  never  tired 
of  talking  about  him,  considering  him  as  without  a 
rival — the  culminating  fiower  of  modern  music. 

At  twenty  the   young   genius   had   already   suffered 
much  and  gone  through  hard  times.     He  had  picked 
up  a  living  by  arranging  marches  and  dances 
for  brass  bands,  or  playing  dance  music,  or  Early 

even  occasionally  acting  as  accompanist  in  Privations 
a  cafi-chantant.  "The  best  songs  came 
into  my  head  while  brushing  my  shoes  before  dawn," 
said  he,  and  already  he  jealously  reserved  a  part  of 
each  day  for  composition,  always  happy,  no  matter 
what  his  hardships,  when  he  could  pour  out  his  soul 
in  music.  He  always  did  as  well  as  he  could  even 
the  most  distasteful  labour,  so  that  he  learned  much  in 
the  school  of  adversity,  and  his  character 
ripened  early.  First 

He  was  now  a  master  of  his  instrument.     Success  as 
making  no  pretence  of  virtuosity,  but  play-         Pianist 
ing  with   true   musical   feeling  and  insight. 
He  found  at  first  little   sympathy  as  a  composer  and 




but  moderate  success  as  pianist,  but  this  tour  brought 
Brahms  to  the  notice  of  Schumann,  and  so  resulted  in 
making  his  fortune. 

At  Gottingen  they  gave  a  concert  in  which  the  young 
pianist  made   a   deep  impression  upon  the  musicians 
present.     He   and    Remenyi   were   to   play 
Kreutzer      the    Kreutzer   Sonata   (Beethoven),    but   at 
Sonata  the  last  moment  it  was  discovered  that  the 

piano  was  half  a  tone  too  low.  It  was  too 
late  to  send  for  a  tuner,  and  to  lower  the  violin  would 
ruin  the  efifect,  so  Brahms  volunteered  to  transpose  the 
piano  part  (from  A  to  B  flat),  to  which  Remenyi,  with 
many  misgivings,  consented;  consequently  Brahms 
played  the  entire  sonata  from  memory,  without  a  re- 
hearsal, half  a  tone  higher  than  it  was  written.  This 
gives  some  idea  of  his  thorough  preparation  and 
prodigious  memory.  In  all  his  concert  tours  he  never 
carried  any  music  with  him.  Bach  and  Beethoven  he 
had  memorised  almost  entire,  as  well  as  a  number  of 
modern  pieces. 

When   Marxsen   heard   of  this   episode — which   was 

remarkable    chiefly    because    of    the    per- 

His  former's    youth   and    inexperience — he    ex- 

Thorough     hibited  little  surprise,  for  Brahms   had  for 

Training     years  been  accustomed  to  transpose  great 

pieces  at  sight  into  any  key. 

As  soon  as  the  concert  was  over,  Joachim,  who  had 
witnessed  the  feat,  came  forward  and  congratulated  the 
performers,  and  off'ered  to  give  them  letters  to  Liszt  at 


Weimar  and  to  Count  Platen,  the  Hofintendant  at 
Hanover,  and,  after  their  return,  to  Schu- 
mann at  Diisseldorf.  The  offer  was  gladly  Meeting 
accepted,  and,  armed  with  the  two  precious  Joachim 
letters,  they  set  out  for  Hanover.  Joachim 
wrote  at  this  time  to  his  friend,  Ehrlich :  "  Brahms 
has  an  altogether  exceptional  talent  for  composition, 
a  gift  which  is  further  enhanced  by  the  unaffected 
modesty  of  his  character.  His  playing,  too,  gives 
every  presage  of  a  great  artistic  career,  full  of  fire  and 
energy,  yet,  if  I  may  say  so,  inevitable  in  its  precision 
and  certainty  of  touch.  In  brief,  he  is  the  most  con- 
siderable musician  of  his  age  that  I  have  ever  met." 

At  Hanover  they  gave  a  most  successful  concert,  the 
King  and  many  members  of  his  Court  being  present, 
and  everything  pointed  toward  a  most  pro- 
pitious stay,  when  a  sudden  blow  upset  all       Hanover 
their   plans.     A    second   concert  had  been  and 

planned,  when  the  police  intervened,  and  Politics 
not  only  forbade  the  concert,  but  ordered 
them  out  of  the  city,  giving  them  passports  to  Weimar. 
The  reason  for  this  extraordinary  behaviour  lay  in  the 
fact  that  Remenyi's  brother  had  been  active  in  the 
revolt  of  '48,  and  it  was  suspected  that  Eduard  had 
also  had  a  hand  in  it,  a  suspicion  which  proved  to  be 
founded  upon  fact. 

There  was  nothing  left  to  do  but  to  go  to  Weimar, 
leaving  behind  them  all  their  bright  prospects.  At 
Weimar    a    successful    concert    was     given    in    June 




1853,  the  programme   including  Brahms'  E  flat  minor 

"Scherzo,"  which  greatly  attracted  Liszt, 
Meeting  who  was  in  the  audience.  The  next  day 
Liszt  Brahms  met  Liszt  at  his  residence  in  the 

Altenburg.  The  meeting  was  brought  about 
by  Remenyi.  Brahms  was  very  nervous  when  brought 
face  to  face  with  the  great  master,  and  when  asked  to 
play  declined,  although  pressed  to  do  so  by  both  Liszt 
and  Remenyi.  There  were  present  on  that  occasion 
also  Raff,  Pruckner,  Karl  Klindworth,  and  our  own 
William  Mason.  Finally  Liszt  picked  up  the  manu- 
script of  the  E  flat  minor  "Scherzo"  (Op.  4),  (which 
Mason  says  was  so  illegible  that,  if  he  had  had  occasion 
to  study  it,  he  would  have  been  obliged  first  to  make  a 
copy  of  it)  and,  despite  its  illegibility,  read  it  so  mar- 
vellously that  Brahms  was  amazed  and  delighted. 
Raff  thought  certain  parts  suggested  Chopin's  B  minor 
Scherzo,  but  Brahms  replied  that  he  had  never  seen 
nor  heard  any  of  Chopin's  compositions.  (This  was 
half  a  century  ago,  hence  is  not  so  remarkable  as  it 
may  seem.) 

A  little  later,  Liszt,  by  request,  played  his  recently- 
composed  B  minor  Sonata,  of  which  he  was  very  fond. 

When  he  came  to  a  very  expressive  move- 
Unfor-  ment,  in  which  he  expected  the  sympathetic 

tunate  attention  of  his  listeners,  he  looked  around 

Episode        to   see    the    efiFect    on    Brahms   (who   was 

physically  exhausted  from  much  travel)  and 
found  him  dozing.     Liszt  played  the  Sonata  to  the  end, 


then  rose  and  left  the  room  :  Brahms  left  Weimar  next 
morning.  It  is  not  likely  that  Liszt  allowed  this  incident 
to  prejudice  him  against  Brahms — in  fact,  he  hailed  him 
as  a  new  recruit  to  the  "  Music  of  the  Future  " — but  the 
fact  that  Brahms  was  later  put  forward  by  the  anti- 
Wagnerites  (against  his  will,  it  is  true)  as  their  cham- 
pion, and  especially  that  he  later  overcame  his  romantic 
tendencies  to  a  great  extent,  may  have  influenced  Liszt 
somewhat.  At  any  rate,  neither  especially  cultivated 
the  other's  acquaintance.  Remenyi  remained  at  Weimar 
for  a  short  time  after  Brahms  left,  and  the  tour  was 
abandoned  at  this  point. 

It  was  during  this  visit   to    Liszt  that  Brahms  lost 
the  manuscript   of  a  Violin    Sonata,   originally  Op.  5, 
which  has  never  been  recovered.     In  1872 
Wasielewski  showed  Dietrich  a  lengthy  and  Lost 

beautifully   written    manuscript  of  a   violin  Sonata 

part,  which  Dietrich  immediately  recognised 
as  in  Brahms'  handwriting  of  his  earlier  years.     The 
piano  part  could  not  be  found.     This  must  undoubtedly 
have  been  part  of  the  lost  Violin  Sonata. 

After  the  Weimar  incident,  Brahms  at  once  returned 
to  Gottingen  for  the  promised  letter  to  Schumann,  but 
as   it  was   now   summer    he    remained    for 
some   time   with    Joachim    (at    Gottingen)  To 

attending  the  lectures.     Late  in  September   Diisseldorf 
he  went  with  his  precious  letter  to  Diissel- 
dorf,  Joachim    having    previously   called    Schumann's 
attention  to   Brahms'  works.     The  curtailed  tour  had 



so  impoverished  Brahms  that  he  had  to  walk  all  the 
way  from  Gottingen  to  Diisseldorf,  and  it  was  a  dusty 
and  travel-worn  young  man  that  presented  himself  at 
Schumann's  door  that  October  morning. 

Brahms  found  at  once  that  welcome  and  appreciation 
which  were  so  characteristic  of  the  Schumanns.    Despite 

the  difference  in  their  ages,  they  soon  fell 
Meets  into  the  habit  of  calling  each  other  by  their 

Schumann    Christian  names.     The  Schumanns  were  in 

the  habit  of  giving  weekly  "parlour  musi- 
cales,"  where  each  person  present  was  expected  to  play 
or  sing  for  the  entertainment  and  edification  of  the 
assemblage.  It  was  at  one  of  these  gatherings  that 
Brahms  was  introduced  to  the  Diisseldorf  musical 
circle.  Naturally,  much  listening  had  made  them 
somewhat  sceptical  as  to  the  young  debutant,  but 
Brahms,  by  his  masterly  rendition  of  Schumann's 
"Carnival,"  melted  their  icy  reserve  and  called  forth 
enthusiastic  applause  from  the  company,  while  Schu- 
mann kissed  him  on  the  cheek. 

At  that  time  Dietrich,  afterwards  a  warm  friend  and 
admirer  of  Brahms,  was  also  staying  in  Diisseldorf,  and 

the  two  used  to  breakfast  together  at  the 
Dietrich  Annanasberg  in  the  Hofgarten.  During  this 
month  of  October,  these  two  and  Schumann 
wrote  a  "  Sonata  for  Violin  and  Piano "  (which  still 
exists,  in  manuscript,  in  the  possession  of  Joachim), 
Dietrich  contributing  an  Allegro  in  C  minor,  Schumann 
an  Intermezzo  in  F  major,  Brahms — who  signs  himself 




^^  Johannes  Kreiskr,  Junior  " — an  Allegro  {Scherzo)  in 
C  minor,  on  a  theme  from  Dietrich's  movement,  and 
Schumann  the  Finale  in  A  major.  Joachim  was  to  play 
at  a  concert  in  Diisseldorf  on  October  27,  so  Schumann 
wrote  on  the  title  page  : — 

"  In  anticipation  of  the  arrival  of  our  beloved  and 
honoured  friend,  Joseph  Joachim,  this  sonata  was 
written  by  Robert  Schumann,  Albert  Dietrich,  and 
Johannes  Brahms."  After  reading  the  sonata  through, 
Joachim  was  asked  to  guess  the  composer  of  each  part, 
which  he  readily  did. 

Brahms'  fascinating  personality  here  again  won  all 
with  whom  he  came  in  contact.  In  a  letter  to  Nau- 
mann,  Dietrich  wrote:  — 

"Brahms  is,  as  he  could  not  indeed  fail  Brahms' 
to  be,  a  splendid  fellow;  genius  is  written  Person- 
on  his  brow  and  shines  forth  from  his  clear  ality 

blue    eyes."      The    young    musicians   were 
unanimous    in    their    enthusiastic    admiration    of    his 
compositions  and  playing. 

In    November,    Schumann    went    to    Holland    with 
Madame  Schumann,  returning  December  22,  and  did 
not  meet  Brahms  again  until  January  1854, 
at  a  performance  of  Paradise  and  the  Peri      Hanover 
in    Hanover,     which    Brahms    attended    in  again 

company    with    Joachim    and    Julius    Otto 
Grimm,  later  Director  at  Miinster. 

Schumann's  enthusiasm  had  found  expression  in  the 
now    famous    article,    "  Neue  Bahnen "  (New    Paths), 



which     appeared     October    28,    in     the     Neue     Zeit- 
schrift  fur  Musik    (No.    18   of  that   year), 
"  Neue         as  follows  : — 

Bahnen"  "Ten  years  have  passed  away — almost 

as  many  as  I  formerly  devoted  to  the 
publication  of  this  paper  —  since  I  have  allowed 
myself  to  commit  my  opinion  to  this  soil,  so  rich 
in  memories.  Often,  in  spite  of  an  over-strained 
productive  activity,  I  have  felt  moved  to  do  so ;  many 
new  and  remarkable  talents  have  made  their  appear- 
ance, and  a  fresh  musical  power  seemed  about  to  reveal 
itself  among  the  many  aspiring  artists  of  the  day,  even 
though  their  compositions  were  known  only  to  the  few. 
I  thought  to  follow  with  interest  the  pathwayof  these  elect ; 
there  would,  there  must,  after  such  promise,  suddenly 
appear  one  who  should  utter  the  highest  ideal  expres- 
sion of  his  time,  who  should  claim  the  Mastership  by  no 
gradual  development,  but  burst  upon  us  fully  equipped, 
as  Minerva  sprang  from  the  brain  of  Jupiter.  And  he 
has  come,  this  chosen  youth,  over  whose  cradle  the 
Graces  and  Heroes  seem  to  have  kept  watch.  His 
name  is  Johannes  Brahms ;  he  comes  from  Hamburg, 
where  he  has  been  working  in  quiet  obscurity,  instructed 
by  an  excellent,  enthusiastic  teacher  in  the  most  diffi- 
cult principles  of  his  art,  and  lately  introduced  to  me  by 
an  honoured  and  well-known  master.  His  mere  out- 
ward appearance  assures  us  that  he  is  one  of  the  elect. 
Seated  at  the  piano,  he  disclosed  wondrous  regions. 
We  were  drawn  into  an  enchanted  circle.     Then  came  a 



moment  of  inspiration  which  transformed  the  piano  into 
an  orchestra  of  wailing  and  jubilant  voices.  There 
were  sonatas,  or  rather  veiled  symphonies,  songs  whose 
poetry  revealed  itself  without  the  aid  of  words,  while 
throughout  them  all  ran  a  vein  of  deep  song  melody ; 
several  pieces  of  a  half-demoniacal  character,  but  of 
changing  form ;  then  sonatas  for  piano  and  violin, 
string  quartets,  and  each  one  of  these  creations  so  dif- 
ferent from  the  last,  that  they  appeared  to  flow  from 
so  many  separate  sources.  Then,  like  an  impetuous 
torrent,  he  seemed  to  unite  these  streams  into  a  foaming 
waterfall ;  over  the  tossing  waves  the  rainbow  presently 
stretches  its  peaceful  arch,  while  on  the  banks  butter- 
flies flit  to  and  fro,  and  the  nightingale  warbles  her 
song.  Whenever  he  bends  his  magic  wand  towards 
great  works,  and  the  powers  of  orchestra  and  chorus 
lend  him  their  aid,  still  more  wonderful  glimpses  of  the 
ideal  world  will  be  revealed  to  us.  May  the  Highest 
Genius  help  him  onward  !  Meanwhile  another  genius 
— that  of  modesty — seems  to  dwell  within  him.  His 
comrades  greet  him  at  his  first  step  in  the  world,  where 
wounds  may  perhaps  await  him,  but  the  bay  and  laurel 
also ;  we  welcome  this  valiant  warrior." 

The    first  result    of    this    article    was    an   invitation 
to  play  some   of  his    compositions    at   the 
Gewandhaus      in      Leipsic;      accordingly,       Gewand- 
on    December     17,   he  played    his    "First  haus 

Sonata"  and   "  E  flat   minor  Scherzo."      At 
once  he  found  himself  the  centre  of  a  bitter  controversy. 
B  17 


On  the  one  hand,  "Schumann  adores  him,"  and 
"Joachim  will  not  allow  him  (Brahms)  to  leave  him," 
so  that  they  had  gone  together  to  Hanover 
Centre  of  in  November  for  a  short  stay.  On  the 
Contra-  other  hand,  some  of  the  critics  assailed  him 
versy  furiously.      "  Brahms  will  never  become  a 

star  of  the  first  magnitude,"  and  "We  wish 
him  a  speedy  deliverance  from  his  over-enthusiastic 
patrons  " — such  were  some  of  the  choice  critiques  that 
this  appearance  brought  forth. 

However,  the  most  important    result  of  the  concert 

was   the    publication    of  his   works   by  the   houses   of 

Breitkopf  &  Hartel  and  Bartholf  Senfif.     A 

"  Lohen-       later  event  of  less  importance  than  interest 

grin""  was  Brahms'  first  hearing  of  "Lohengrin" 

at  Leipsic  on  January  7,  1854. 

The  works  that  were  brought  out  at  this  time  were  by 

Breitkopf  &  Hartel  :— 

Op.  I,  "Sonata  in  C"  (dedicated  to 
First  Joachim). 

Works         Op.  2,    "Sonata  in  F   sharp    minor  (dedi- 
cated to  Clara  Schumann). 
Op.  3,    "Six  Songs"    (dedicated   to    Bettina    von 

Arnim),  (Goethe's  Bettina). 
Op.  4,  "Scherzo  in   E  flat  minor"  (dedicated  to 

Ernest  Ferdinand  Wenzel). 
Op.  7,    "  Six  Songs "    (dedicated   to   Albert  Diet- 
Op.     9,     "Variations     (16     in     number)     on     a 

liKAIlMS    Al'    THK    AGE    OF    l8 

To/aci-  />  iS 


theme    by    Robert    Schumann "    (dedicated    to 
Clara  Schumann). 
By  Bartholf  Senff:— 

Op.  5,    "Sonata   in  F  minor"   (dedicated  to  the 

Countess  Ida  von  Hohenthal,  nee  Countess  von 


Op.  6,    "  Six   Songs "    (dedicated   to   Louisa   and 

Minna  Japha). 

The  Andante  espressivo  of  the  Sonata  (Op.  5),        Third 

bears  the  following  poetical  heading  : —  Sonata 

"  Der  Abend  dammert,  das  Mondlicht  scheint, 
Da  sind  zwei  Himmel  in  Liebe  vereint 
Und  halten  sich  selig  umfangen." — Siernau. 

(The  twilight  gathers,  the  moonlight  shines, 
While  heaven  with  earth  in  love  combines 
And  holds  her  in  blessed  embrace.) 

The  Intermezzo  (Riickblick)  is  a  return  to  the  theme 
of  the  preceding  Andante,  forming,  in  contrast  to  the 
intervening  Scherzo,  a  most  beautiful  and  effective  bit  of 

The  theme  for  Op.  9  was   taken   from  Schumann's 
"  Bunte  Blatter  "  (Op.  99).     In  this  composition  Brahms 
already  fixed  the  character  of  the  Variation- 
form,  which  he  henceforth  adopted,  in  which     Variahon- 
he  seeks  after  an  entirely  new  creation,  in  form 

each  variation,  while  retaining  the  harmony 
of  the  theme.      Beethoven   and   Schumann   had    both 
made  use  of  the  same  principle  in  their  later  variation- 



The  sensation  which  Schumann's  article  created  was 
profound,  and  Brahms  at  once  became  the  object  of 
general  attention  and  much  sceptical  oppo- 
Sccptics  sition.  Schumann  was  not  always  so  for- 
tunate in  his  prophecies  as  in  this  case  ; 
hence  his  very  enthusiasm  was  the  cause  of  distrust 
in  some  quarters.  Von  Biilow,  who  afterward  became 
one  of  the  staunchest  supporters  of  Brahms  (his  change 
from  Wagner  to  Brahms  was  not  a  desertion  of  his 
colours,  but  simply  a  mental  phenomenon  —  he  and 
Wagner  really  had  nothing  in  common),  wrote  to  Liszt : 
"Mozart-Brahms  or  Schumann-Brahms  "  (he  had  been 
compared  to  both  composers)  "  does  not  in  the  least 
disturb  the  tranquillity  of  my  slumbers.  It  is  fifteen 
years  since  Schumann  spoke  similarly  of  the  '  genius  ' 
of  W.  Sterndale  Bennett."  This  was  the  attitude  of 
many,  and  the  opposition  thus  aroused  at  first  proved  a 
real  obstacle  in  his  way,  but  the  "  Neue  Bahnen  "  eventu- 
ally contributed  much  to  his  success. 

Schumann  had  built  great  hopes  on  Brahms  :  there  is 
no  doubt  that  he  had  felt  that  Brahms  would  consum- 
mate his  (Schumann's)  work.  As  one  writer 
Schumanfi' s  hdi?,  put  it:  "Johannes  Brahms  was  the 
Friendship  spiritual  son  of  Robert  Schumann  " ;  but 
he  was  a  son  with  a  mind  of  his  own.  Un- 
fortunately, the  warm  friendship  which  sprang  up  between 
the  two  was  cut  short  by  Schumann's  untimely  death. 
Less  than  a  year  after  their  first  meeting — to  be  more 
accurate,  it  was   just   five  months — appeared  the    first 


signs  of  Schumann's  affliction.  "  Why  do  you  play  so 
fast,  dear  Johannes  ?  "  impatiently  cried  Schumann  one 
day;  "I  beg  of  you,  be  moderate."  Brahms  turned 
quickly,  and  one  glance  told  him  that  Schumann  was  a 
sick  man.  His  reply  was  a  tear  and  a  hand-clasp.  Soon 
more  serious  signs  of  disorder  appeared,  and  then — the 

As  soon  as  Brahms  heard  of  Schumann's  collapse  he 
hurried  at  once  to  Diisseldorf,  remaining  almost  con- 
stantly with  Madame  Schumann  during  the 
master's  illness ;  and  before  her  removal  to  Aid  to 

Berlin,  to  her  mother's,  he  spent  some  time  Madame 
arranging  Schumann's  library.  Infact,  Schu-  Schumann 
mann's  affairs  in  general  had  gotten  into  bad 
shape,  and  Brahms  quietly  set  to  work  and  straightened 
them  out,  proving  himself  ready,  decisive  and  systematic 
in  business  affairs,  delicate,  tactful  and  good-natured. 

Brahms  frequently  visited  the  invalid  at  Endenich, 
near  Bonn,  where  for  two  years  Schumann  was  confined 
in  the  private  asylum  of  Dr  Richarz,  and 
would  play  for  him.  In  his  lucid  intervals  Visits  to 
he  used  to  write  Brahms  pathetic  letters,  Endenich 
thanking  him  for  the  pleasure  and  comfort 
derived  from  his  music.  These  visits  always  soothed 
Schumann,  whose  condition  for  some  time  was  regarded 
as  very  hopeful;  but  the  improvement  was  only  tem- 

At  twenty,   Brahms   was  small  and  slight.     Dietrich 



describes  him  as  "Youthful,  almost  boyish-looking, 
with  high-pitched  voice  and  long,  fair  hair, 
Personal  making  on  the  whole  a  most  attractive  im- 
Appear-  pression.  Those  who  knew  him  best  were 
ance  particularly     struck    by    the    characteristic 

energy    of    his     mouth    and    the    serious 
depths  in  his  blue  eyes." 

He  was  especially   at  home   among  the  Diisseldorf 
artists  and  their  families — Sohn  and  Gude  and  Schirner 
and  Lessing — also  at  the  house  of  the  blind 
Character-    Fraulein   Leser  (an  intimate   friend  of  the 
istics  Schumanns),   where   many    musical  gather- 

ings took  place.  Brahms'  modest  and  win- 
ning manner  charmed  all.  All  agree  that  his  was  a 
most  fascinating  personality ;  he  was  infinitely  good- 
natured,  met  everybody  on  an  equality,  was  modest, 
never  aggressive,  and  a  good  listener.  He  was  full  of 
animal  spirits  and,  with  all  his  slightness,  of  such 
vigorous  physique  that  even  the  severest  mental  labour 
hardly  seemed  an  exertion.  If  he  chose,  he  could 
sleep  soundly  at  any  hour  of  day  or  night.  He  tried 
to  lower  his  strikingly  high-pitched  voice  by  speaking 
hoarsely,  giving  it  at  times  an  unpleasant  quality. 
Already  he  was  lazy  about  letter-writing. 

With  men  he  was  lively,  often  exuberant,  occasionally 

blunt,  and  full  of  wild  freaks.     He  would 

Pranks        run   upstairs   to  Dietrich's   room,    hammer 

upon  the  door  with  both  fists,  and,  without 

awaiting  a  reply,   burst  into  the   room.     In  an   excur- 



sion  to  the  Grafenburg  one  day  he  pulled  up  some 
turnips  from  the  fields  which  they  were  passing,  cleaned 
them  carefully,  and  offered  them  to  the  ladies  as  re- 
freshment. In  social  gatherings  he  entered  into  all 
that  was  going  on,  being  one  of  the  liveliest  in  the 
party.  At  an  evening  party  (in  Diisseldorf)  his  singing 
of  "O  versenk "  and  other  of  his  songs  called  forth 
great  applause. 

Rubinstein,  who  first  met  Brahms  about  a  year  or 
two  later,  did  not  know  just  what  to  make  of  him,  for 
he  wrote  to  Liszt:  "I  hardly  know  how  to 
make  clear  the  impression  he  made  upon  Rubinsteiii 
me.  For  the  salon  he  is  not  sufficiently 
at  ease  {gracieux) ;  for  the  concert  room  not  fiery 
enough ;  for  the  country  not  primitive  enough ;  for  the 
city  not  cosmopolitan  enough." 

When  he  played  he  bent  his  head  down  over  the 
keyboard,  and,  when  particularly  excited,  hummed  the 
melody  aloud  as  he  played  it.  His  playing 
was  supremely  artistic,  powerful,  and  again,  Manner- 
exquisitely  tender,  always  spirited  \  in  fact,  isms  as  a 
he  was  at  this  time  more  generally  admired  Pianist 
as  a  pianist  than  as  a  composer.  Schumann 
said,  "  His  playing  and  his  music  belong  together ; 
such  original  tone-effects  I  do  not  remember  ever  to 
have  heard." 

In  composing  he  liked  to  think  of  the  words  of 
folk-songs,  which  seemed  to  suggest  themes  to  his 
mind.     As    a    rule   he  never   spoke  about  works  upon 



which  he  was  engaged,  and  made  no  plans  for  future 

compositions.  His  compositions  of  this 
Manner  early  date  are  already  full  of  the  most 
of  Com-  extraordinary  and  unusual  combinations, 
posing  though    even    the    most    striking   of   these 

sound  inevitable  and  original,  appearing 
everywhere  quite  naturally  and  almost  naively.  "Brahms 
stands  almost  alone  in  striking  at  once  his  characteristic 
keynote.  From  the  very  first  there  was  no  trace  of  uncer- 
tainty or  of  imitation.  His  very  individuality,  however, 
prevented  general  recognition.  For  years  his  works 
gathered  dust  on  the  shelves  of  his  publishers ;  only  gradu- 
ally did  they  find  their  way  into  the  concert  room." 

The  early  part  of  1854  was  spent  in  correcting  proof- 
sheets  ;  then  followed  a  visit  of  several  weeks  to  Liszt 

at  Weimar,  and  a  few  concerts  with  Joachim 
The  and  Stockhausen,  the  singer  (who  became 

Period  of     an  intimate  and  life-long  friend  of  Brahms). 
Growth        During  these  spring  months  Hanover  was 

Brahms'  headquarters ;  in  early  summer  he 
started  on  a  vacation  trip  through  the  Black  Forest, 
but  was  seized  with  an  unaccountable  fit  of  home- 
sickness and  turned  back  at  Ulm. 

In  July  the  Neue  Berliner  Musikal-Zeitung  printed  a 
careful  and  discriminating  review  of  Op.  3,  and  about 
the  same  time  came  two  offers  of  positions,  one  from 
the  Rhenish  Conservatory  at  Cologne,  the  other  from 
the  Prince  of  Lippe-Detmold.  He  rejected  the  first 
because   it    would   take   too    much   of    his   time,    but 



accepted  the  second  because  it  would  give  him  ample 
leisure  for  study  and  composition.  It  did  more  than  this 
in  that  it  brought  him  into  contact  with  cultivated  men 
and  women  and  greatly  increased  his  experience  in  the 
handling  of  choral  masses. 

His  duties  at  Detmold  consisted  in  giving  lessons 
to  some  members  of  the  ducal  family  and  directing  a 
small  chorus  and  orchestra.  This  work  occupied  the 
winter  months  only,  and  left  the  greater  part  of  the 
year  free.  He  remained  here  for  two  years,  then 
resigned  and  went  back  to  Hamburg,  where  he  was 
near  his  parents,  who  still  lived  at  the  old  home  on 
the  Fuhlentwiete.  This  was  his  residence  during  the 
years  from  1856  to  1862. 

When  Schumann  died,  in  1856,  Brahms,  with  Joachim 
and  Dietrich,  walked  behind  the  coffin  to  the  grave. 
In  the  dark  hours  of  her  grief,  Brahms  was 
the  energetic  friend  and  counsellor  and  de-  Schu- 

fender  of  Madame  Schumann,  who  was  mann's 
often    sorely    pressed    and    in    need    of   a  Death 

faithful   adviser.      In    her    sorrow    she    re- 
proached herself  with  not  having  restrained  Schumann 
in  his  ruinous  mania  for  hard  work,  and  it  fell  largely 
upon  Brahms  to  act  as  comforter. 

He  regarded  her  as  the  noblest  of  her  sex,  saying 
once  to  a  friend,  "When  you  have  written  anything, 
ask  yourself  whether  such  a  woman  as  Madame  Schu- 
mann could  read  it  with  pleasure.  If  you  doubt  that, 
then  cross  out  what  you  have  written."     Their  friend- 




ship  was  most  intimate  and  beautiful  (Brahms  loved 
her  with  almost  filial  devotion) — they  always  addressed 
each  other  by  their  Christian  names — and  in  every 
way  their  relations  were  practically  those  of  mother  and 
son  (Madame  Schumann  was  thirteen  years  Brahms' 
senior).  Through  his  entire  life  it  was  his  habit  to 
spend  the  three  summer  months  near  her,  and  in 
1880  Hanslick  wrote:  "None  of  Mme.  Schumann's 
children  is  as  young  as  she  is.  Brahms  is  cultivating 
a  patriarchal  beard  with  the  hope  of  passing  for  her 
father."  They  worked  for  each  other,  and  no  doubt 
loved  each  other  in  a  strictly  platonic  way.  It  is  here, 
probably,  that  one  must  look  for  the  real  reason  why 
Brahms  never  married. 

In  May  1856  he  gave  a  concert  at  Cologne,  and  was 
censured  for  including  in  his  programme  so  dull  a  work 
as  Bach's  "  Chromatic  Fantasia."    He  spent 
Op.  10  the  summer  at  Bonn,  according  to  Deiters, 

appears  who  met  him  there.  This  year  Breitkopf  & 
Hartel  published  Op.  10,  "  Four  Ballades 
for  Piano"  (dedicated  to  Julius  Otto  Grimm).  The 
First  Ballade  owed  its  origin  to  the  Scotch  ballad, 
"Edward,"  from  Herder's  "Stimmen  der  Volker,"  and 
the  others  were  probably  inspired  by  similar  causes. 

In  December  1857  Brahms  accepted  two  engage- 
ments at  the  Gewandhaus,  Leipsic,  and  took  part  in 
the  performance  of  Mendelssohn's  Concerto  and  Beeth- 
oven's Triple  Concerto.  In  January  1859  he  played  at 
the  Gewandhaus  his  First  Piano  Concerto  in  D  minor 



(Op.   15),  which  was  severely  criticised.     The  audience 
listened   in   pure   bewilderment,   waiting  in 
vain  for  the  virtuoso  passages.    The  Leipziger  First 

Signalen  called  it  a  "  Symphony  with  Piano-  Piano 

forte  Obligato,  in  which  the  solo  part  is  as  Concerto 
ungrateful  as  possible,  and  the  orchestral 
part  a  series  of  lacerating  chords."  In  truth,  Brahms  had 
turned  over  a  new  leaf  in  the  history  of  the  concerto- 
form,  and  the  Leipzigers  could  not  comprehend  it. 
This  concerto,  which  is  one  of  the  grandest  of 
Brahms'  youthful  compositions,  was  originally  sketched 
as  a  sonata  for  two  pianos,  the  slow  Scherzo  of  which 
was  afterwards  used  as  the  Funeral  March  in  the 
"  German  Requiem."  Brahms  shortly  afterwards  took 
the  concerto  to  Hamburg,  where  it  was  most  favourably 
received.  It  consists  of  a  passionate  first  movement,  an 
adagio  and  a  rondo. 

The  Serenade  in  D  (Op.  11)  was  given  in  Hamburg, 
March  28,  1859,  and,  later  in  the  year,  the  Serenade  in 
A  (Op.  16),  in  its  first,  unrevised  form. 
The  Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  'Cello,  Serenades 
(Op.  8),  was  published  by  Breitkopf  &  and  Trio 
Hartel  in  1859,  and  performed  the  next 
year  in  New  York  by  Theodore  Thomas,  violin ; 
Bergmann,  'cello;  and  William  Mason,  piano.  It 
was  revised  and  simplified,  and  republished  in 

In  1 860,  after  six  years  of  absolute  silence  (except 
for  Op.  8,  which,  though  published  in  1859,  was  written 



several  years  before),  Brahms  published  two  new  and 
splendid  compositions,  which  did  much  to 
More  New  establish  his  reputation ;  these  were  the 
Composi-  Serenades  referred  to  above,  the  first  in  D 
tions  (Op.  1 1),  for  Full  Orchestra,  the  second  in  A 

(Op.  1 6),  for  Small  Orchestra.  Completed 
about  the  same  time  as  these,  but  published  in  1861, 
were  : — 

Op.  12,  "Ave  Maria,"  for  Female  Chorus,  Orches- 
tra and  Organ. 
Op.  13,  "Funeral  Hymn,"  for  Mixed  Chorus  and 

Wind  Orchestra. 
Op.   14,  "Eight  Songs  and  Romances,"  for  Solo 

Voice  with  Piano  accompaniment. 
Op.   15,  "First  Concerto  in  D  minor,"  for  Piano- 
forte and  Orchestra. 
The  years  of  silence  had  been  spent  in  serious  study, 
and  these  new  works  displayed  a  remarkable  increase 
of  artistic  power  and  conviction,  as  well  as 
Advance       a  great  gain  in  purity  of  style  and  clearness 
over  Partner  oi  expression.     The  Serenades  were  ambi- 
Work  tious   and   masterly   works  ;    the    "  Funeral 

Hymn,"  to  words  beginning  "Nun  lasst 
uns  den  Leib  begraben  "  (Now  let  us  bury  the  body), 
was  a  true  forerunner  of  the  "German  Requiem." 
Besides  the  above-mentioned  works,  Brahms  had  also 
written  a  Choral  Mass  in  canon  form,  which  has  never 
been  published. 

Brahms  remained  in  Hamburg  until  after  the  publica- 


tion  of  the  Serenades,  in  i860,  then  went  to  Winterthur, 
in   Switzerland,  and  spent  the  winter  near 
his  friend,    Kirchner,  teaching,  concertising  Visit  to 

and  writing,  returning  north  for  the  summer,        Switzer- 
which  he  spent  at  Hamm,  a  suburb  of  Ham-  land 

burg,  about  half  an  hour's  ride  from  the  city. 
In  the  fall  he  went  again  to  Winterthur,  and  the  suc- 
ceeding summer  (1862)  again  to  Hamm. 

In  1 86 1  were  completed  the  "Variations  on  a  Theme 
by  Handel "  (Op.  24),  for  Piano,  and  the  "  Marien- 
lieder  "  (Op.  22),  for  Full  Chorus,  both  pub- 
lished in  1862.  The  "  Handel  Variations,"  "•  Hdndel 
consisting  of  twenty-five  variations  and  a  Variations'^ 
fugue  by  way  of  wind-up,  have  been  de-  and^'Mari- 
scribed  as  a  chef-d'oeuvre  of  modern  piano  enlieder" 
music.  The  "  Marienlieder  "  are  a  number 
of  old  German  songs  relating  to  the  worship  of  the 

During    the    two    summers    that    Brahms    spent   at 
Hamm  he  resided  at  the  house  of  Frau  Dr  Ehzabeth 
Rosing,  to  whom  he  afterwards  dedicated 
his  A  major  Quartet  (Op.  26).     There  was  Ladies' 

a  charming  ladies'  quartet  next  door  who  Quartet 
used  to  sing  his  "  Songs  for  Four  Voices " 
(Op.  17).  Brahms  had  met  them  at  a  wedding  where 
he  was  playing  the  organ,  and  asked  them  to  practise 
his  "Ave  Maria,"  which  he  had  just  completed.  They 
sang  the  "Songs  for  Four  Voices  "  upon  their  concert 
tours,  and  notably  at  the  great  Rhenish  Musical  Festival 



at  Diisseldorf,  to  a  large  gathering  of  musicians,  Brahms, 
Stockhausen  and  Joachim  among  the  number. 

This  quartet  was  the  nucleus  of  a  small  Ladies' 
Choral  Society  which  Brahms  conducted  during  the  two 
summers  at  Hamm,  and  for  which  he  composed  many 
pieces  and  arranged  much  old  Italian  church  music.  In 
the  fall  the  rehearsals  ended  with  a  small  performance 
in  the  Petrikirche. 

Through  Kirchner's  introduction,  Brahms  found  a 
circle  of  warm  admirers  in  Switzerland.  In  fact,  ex- 
cepting Hamburg,  Switzerland  was  probably  the  first 
seat  of  a  genuine  Brahms  cult.  But  when,  in  the  fall  of 
1862,  Kirchner  removed  to  Ziirich,  Winterthur  lost  its 
charm  for  Brahms,  and  he  did  not  return. 

Of  course  there  was  more  or  less  travelling  during 
these  years — Brahms  was  always  a  great  traveller — and 
an  occasional  concert  tour.  During  the 
Oldenburg  winter  of  1861-1862  there  was  a  tour,  in  the 
course  of  which  he  played  at  Hanover — 
where  he  remained  some  weeks — Bremen,  Oldenburg, 
— where  he,  Joachim  and  another  friend  were  sponsors 
for  Dietrich's  first  child.  Max  Hermann  Carl  —  and 
other  cities.  At  the  Oldenburg  concert  a  laurel  wreath 
had  been  hung  over  Brahms'  chair  by  an  admirer.  When 
he  came  upon  the  stage  to  play,  Brahms  quietly  removed 
the  wreath  and  laid  it  under  the  piano,  upon  the  floor. 

During  the  year  1861  he  arranged  several  Schubert 
songs  for  orchestra  for  his  friend  Stockhausen,  and  this 
year  were  published  by  Simrock  : — 



Op.  20,  "Three  Duets  for  Soprano  and  Alto,"  with 

Piano  accompaniment. 
Op.  21  (for  Piano) — 

No.   I,  "Variations  (11  in  number)  on  Original 

Theme  in  D." 
No.   2,  "Variations  (13  and  Finale)  on  a  Hun- 
garian Theme  in  D."     (This  theme  is  in  the 
unusual  seven-four  rhythm). 
In  June   1862   Brahms   again  attended  the  Rhenish 
Musical  Festival  at  Diisseldorf,  and  went  thence  with 
Dietrich  to   Miinster-am-Stein,  near  Kreuz- 
nach,  to  be  near  the  Schumanns,  remaining      Miinster- 
two  weeks.     They  resided  at  the  foot  of  the      am-Stein 
Ebernberg,  and  worked  industriously  every 
morning,  the  afternoons  and  evenings  being  given  up  to 
excursions  and  to  "  making  music."     Brahms  here  com- 
posed the  first  two  books  of  the  "  Magelonen  Lieder," 
and  showed  Dietrich  the  first  movement  of  the  First 
Symphony,  in  somewhat  different  form,  however,  from 
that  in  which  it  eventually  appeared  (in    1876).     He 
also  presented  Dietrich  with  a  MS.  copy  of  the  Second 
Piano  Sonata,  very  neatly  written,  with  a  dedication. 
Dietrich  says  of  him  at  this  time: — 
"  His  disposition  is  as  amiable  and  cheerful  as  full  of 
depths  of  seriousness.     He  frequently  teases 
the  ladies  by  making  joking   assertions   in  Great 

such  a  grave  manner  that  Madame  Schumann  Teaser 

particularly  takes  them  quite  seriously,  which 
gives  rise  to  most   amusing   discussions,    causing    him 




often  to  be  misunderstood.  .  .  .  He  must  be  rather  un- 
comfortable for  ladies  indulging  in  sentimental  moods ; 
but  that  does  not  prevent  his  being  very  serious  and 
quiet  when  it  suits  the  occasion." 

The  stay  at  Miinster  over,  there  followed  a  long  trip 
to  Speyer,  Carlsruhe,  and  other  places  of  interest.  In 
this  year  (1862)  the  Second  Serenade  (in  A)  was  given 
in  New  York :  Brahms  thought  this  was  the  first  per- 
formance since  publication. 

In  the  fall  of  this  year  came  another  concert  tour, 
beginning    at    Carlsruhe,   where   he   played   his   Piano 
Concerto,    and  was    recalled;    then    Basle, 
Oldenburg    Zurich,    Mannheim,    Cologne    and    Olden- 
again  burg.     This  tour  was  most  successful.     The 

Christmas  holidays  were  spent  at  Detmold, 
the  Oldenburg  concert  following  early  in  January  1863. 
The  night  before  the  concert,  after  the  rehearsal,  Brahms 
played  the  "  Handel  Variations "  for  the  members  of 
the  orchestra,  who  were  delighted  with  it.  "  The  fugue," 
one  writes,  "is  perfectly  fascinating."  At  the  concert 
the  Concerto  and  the  Horn  Trio  (Op.  40)  were  received 
with  enthusiasm,  largely  due,  no  doubt,  to  Dietrich's 
"  campaign  of  education  "  and  known  partisanship. 

Brahms   remained  for  a  short  visit   with   the   Diet- 

richs,  by  whom  he  was  very  much  loved  and 

Affaire  du    honoured.     Dietrich  calls  him  "  the  pleas- 

Cceur  antest    visitor   imaginable — always   amiable 

and  unassuming,  always  in  good  spirits."    It 

was  during  this  visit  that  he  was  very  much  attracted 



by  a  young  lady  who  frequented  the  Dietrichs'  house. 
One  evening  he  said,  after  she  had  left,  "  I  like  her ;  I 
should  like  to  marry  her;  such  a  girl  could  make  me 

In  1862  appeared  the  following  works,  published  by 
Simrock : — 

Op.  17,  "Part  Songs  for  Female  Chorus,"  with 
two  Horns  and  Harp.  Op.  18,  "First  Sextet"  in 
B  fiat  for  Strings.  Op.  19,  "Five  Poems," 
for  Solo  Voice  with  Piano.  The  "  Handel  Publica- 
Variations  "  (Op.  24)  and  the  "  Marien-  tions  of 
lieder "    (Op.    22)    were    brought    out    the  1862 

same  year  by  Rieter- Biedermann.  The 
B  flat  Sextet  is  the  most  significant  piece  of 
chamber  music  since  the  death  of  Beethoven.  The 
"Handel  Variations"  are  reviewed  at  length  in 
the  Allgemeijie  Musikalische  Zeiiung  for  September  9, 

Brahms'  eyes  had  for  some  time  been  turning 
toward  Vienna  as  a  place  of  residence.  At  length, 
when  the  Winterthur  ties  were  broken,  he  took  the 
decisive  step.  This  may  have  been  hastened  by  the 
failure  of  a  plan  to  elect  him  Director  of  the  Ham- 
burg Philharmonic  Society ;  at  any  rate  he  wrote 
to  Dietrich,  "  I  am  as  happy  as  a  child  at  the 
thought."  There  seems  to  be  some  difiference  of 
opinion  as  to  the  exact  date  of  this  change  of  resid- 
ence, but,  inasmuch  as  the  fall  of  the  year  1862  was 
given  up  to    the  concert  tour  just  spoken  of,  it  can- 



not  well  have  been  before  January  1863,  the  date  which 
Dietrich  gives.  However,  the  decision  may  have 
been  reached  early  in  the  fall  of  1862,  for,  on  Nov- 
ember 16,  Brahms  played  at  a  Hellmesberger 
concert  the  piano  part  of  his  G  minor  Quartet 
(Op.  25).  There  was  no  question  as  to  his  merit 
as  a  pianist,  but  as  a  composer — that  was  different. 
The  Blatter  fiir  Theater- Musik  uftd  Kunst  (November 
21,  1862)  said  : — 

"  We  do  not  propose  to  condemn  Herr  Brahms  alto- 
gether until  we  have  heard  more  of  his  work,  but  the 
present  specimen  will  not  induce  the  Vien- 
Unfavour-  nese  people  to  accept  him  as  a  composer. 
able  Re-  The  first  three  movements  are  gloomy,  ob- 
ception  in  scure,  and  ill-developed  ;  the  last  is  simply 
Vienna  an  offence  against  the  laws  of  style.  There 
is  neither  precedent  nor  excuse  for  intro- 
ducing into  chamber  music  a  movement  entirely  con- 
ceived in  the  measure  of  a  national  dance,  and  it  is  much 
to  be  regretted  that  Herr  Brahms  should  have  departed 
in  this  matter  from  the  example  set  by  Beethoven  and 

This  critique  is  valuable  rather  as  a  curiosity  than  as 
an  example  of  serious  criticism,  for  it  is  not  only  in- 
accurate but  also  unjust.     But  Brahms  was 
New  simply  undergoing  the  same   treatment  as 

Friends         had  fallen  to  the  lot  of  Vienna's  other  great 
adopted  musical  sons — Mozart,   Beethoven 
and  Schubert — who  had  been  abused,  underrated,  and 



allowed  to  starve.  True,  the  shining  lights  of  the  Vien- 
nese musical  world  —  Robert  Volkmann,  Goldmark, 
Bruckner,  and  Ignaz  Briill  —  received  him  with  open 
arms,  but  the  critics  and  the  public  for  the  most  part 
neither  appreciated  nor  accepted  him. 

On  November  23  the  Serenade  in  A  was  given  at  a 
Gesellschaft   der    Musikfreunde   concert,  and   because 
of  its  lighter  character  it  scored  a  success. 
On    November    29    the  A   major   Quartet         The  Ice 
(Op.   26)  was  given,  and  was  much   more  melts 

favourably  received  than  the  G  minor  ;  and 
in  December   1863  opposition  was  silenced  by  a  mag- 
nificent performance,  under  Hellmesberger,  of  the  B  fiat 
Sextet.     Even  the  Blatter  said  : — 

"  The  opening  movement  is  a  walk  in  spring,  when 
the  sky  is  cloudless  and  the  flowers  are  blooming  in  the 
hedgerows.     The  second  represents  a  gipsy 
encampment — dark-eyed    maidens    whisper-  A  Complete 
ing  secrets,  and,  afar  off,  the  subdued  tinkle  Success 

of  the  mandolin.       The  third   is   a   rustic 
dance  ;  and  the  fourth — well,   we  suppose   the   fourth 
must  mean  the  journey  home." 

Needless  to  say,  the  description  is  entirely  apocryphal, 
but  the  spirit  of  approbation  instead  of  abuse  at  least  is 
good  to  see. 

Late  in  1862  Wagner  established  himself  at  Penzing, 
and  he  and  Brahms  often  met  on  neutral  ground,  but 
never  became  intimate.  The  latter  lived  for  some  time 
at  the  Deutschen   Hause  in  the  Singer   Strasse,  where 



he  was  the  centre  of  an  ever-widening  circle  of  friends 
and  admirers.  "  His  quiet  voice,  undemon- 
Personal  strative  manner,  kindly  disposition  that 
Popularity  showed  itself  in  a  thousand  services,  upright 
honesty  that  never  stooped  even  to  con- 
quer,"— these  qualities  soon  won  him  personal  popularity. 

He  introduced  himself  as  a  soloist  in  a  concert  made  up 
of  Bach's,  Beethoven's,  Schumann's,  and  his  own  works, 
making  his  greatest  impression  in  Schumann's 
Birthday  ^^  Fantaisie"  (Op.  17),  and  his  own  "  Handel 
Gift  Variations."    After  spending  the  winter  here 

in  Vienna,  he  returned  home  to  spend  his 
birthday  with  his  parents.  The  Viennese  publisher, 
Spina,  made  him  a  birthday  gift  of  all  of  Schubert's 
works,  a  kindness  which  Brahms  very  much  appreciated. 

Part  of  this  summer  was  spent  at  Blankensee,  on  the 
Elbe,  two  hours  from  Hamburg,  followed  by  a  short  stay 
at  Carlsruhe,  a  farewell  trip  to  Hamburg,  then  back  to 
Vienna  in  August,  to  act  as  Chorus-master  at  the  Sing- 
Akademie — a  position  which  he  had  accepted  during 
the  summer.  In  this  he  was  most  successful,  preparing 
a  memorable  performance  of  Bach's  "  Passion  Music." 

That  he  had  not  as  yet  lost  that  "other  genius  ...  of 
modesty,"  of  which  Schumann  wrote  in  1853,  is  attested 
by  a  letter  which  he  wrote  to  Dietrich  before  entering 
upon  his  duties  in  Vienna.  (Dietrich  was  by  this  time 
a  successful  conductor  with  nearly  ten  years'  experience 
behind  him.)     The  letter  ran,  in  part  : — 

"  I  should  much  like  to  ask  you  to  give  me  some 


information  that  will  be  of  use  to  me  there.     At  hap- 
hazard, because  I  do  not  really  know  what 
to  ask  you,  and  am  extremely  shy  of  making  Asks 

my  first  attempt  in  this  line  at  Vienna  of  all  Advice 

places."     He  goes  on  to  speak  of  Handel's 
"Alexander's  Feast  "and  of  Bach's  "  Christmas  Oratorio," 
and  asks  for  copies,  if  possible,  orchestrated,  with  or 
without  organ. 

There  was  a  "  Brahms  concert "  given   at  the  Sing- 
Akademie   on   April    17,    1864,  and   early  in    May  he 
was  unanimously  re-elected,  but  resigned  in 
July,  for  the  reason  that  he  wanted  to  be  Leaves 

free  from  even  this  restraint.  His  relations  ike  Sing- 
with  the  Akademie  were  entirely  agreeable,  Akademie 
for  he  wrote  shortly  before  resigning  :  "  Both 
Academy  and  orchestra  give  me  much  pleasure."  For 
a  time  he  was  very  undecided  whether  or  not  to  remain 
in  Vienna,  but  the  superior  advantages  of  the  city  on 
the  Danube  won  the  day,  and  he  settled  there  for  the 
remainder  of  his  life. 

In  this  connection  it  might  be  well  to  speak  of  a  life- 
long habit  of  Brahms' — that  of  roaming  at  will.  He 
was  in  the  habit  of  taking  frequent  long  journeys,  afoot 
or  by  rail,  and  would  remain  at  his  leisure  in  any  town 
which  might  suit  his  fancy,  or  which  was  quiet  enough 
for  hard  work.  So  that,  while  he  always  returned  to 
Vienna,  it  was  not  at  all  certain  that  he  was  to  be 
found  there  at  any  particular  time. 

This    year,    1863,    had    witnessed    the    triumph    of 


Brahms  in  Vienna  after  a  chilling  reception ;  it  also 
witnessed  the  publication  of  several  import- 
Schuman7i  ant  works.  Op.  23,  "  Variations  (ten  in 
Four-hand  number)  on  a  Theme  by  Schumann,"  for 
Varia-  Piano,   was  brought   out   by   Rieter-Bieder- 

tions  mann.      This    work,    dedicated    to    Julie 

Schumann,  was  built  upon  a  theme  taken 
from  Schumann's  last  work,  which  Schumann  in  his 
derangement  thought  that  the  spirits  of  Schubert  and 
Mendelssohn  had  brought  to  him.  (He  had  jotted 
down  the  theme,  and  later,  in  a  lucid  interval,  written 
some  variations  upon  it,  had  been  seized  with  another 
attack,  but,  as  soon  as  he  was  better,  had  gone  back 
and  finished  them.  This  composition  is  not  to  be 
found  among  the  published  works  of  Schumann.)  ^ 

Simrock  published  in   1863  : — 

Op.  25,  "  First  Quartet  "  in  G  minor,  for  Piano,  Violin, 

Viola  and  'Cello,  dedicated  to  Baron  Rein- 

Publica-       hard  von   Dalwigk ;  and  Op.   26,  "Second 

tions  of        Quartet  "  in  A  major  for  Piano,  Violin,  Viola 

1863  and  'Cello,  dedicated  to  Frau  Dr  Elizabeth 


In  the  spring  of  1864  were  finished  the  following 
works,  which  were  published  during  the  year: — 

Op.  27,  "13th  Psalm"  (How  long  wilt  Thou  forget 
me,  O  Lord),  for  Three-part  Female  Chorus  and  Organ. 

'  "On  February  27,  1854,  while  Brahms  visited  Schumann  at 
Diisseldorf,  Schumann  suddenly  left  the  table  to  go  out  upon  the 
Rhinebridge,  without  hat  or  overcoat,  and  threw  himself  into  the 
river.  Upon  his  desk  lay  this  theme." — Ehlert, /rw//  the  "  Tone- 



This  is  really    sacred    music  :    Brahms    may  have   had 
in    mind   when    he   wrote   it   some   idea   of  a   church 
performance.      (All  previous  biographers  give  the  title 
of  this  work    as    the   23rd  Psalm,   but  the 
words  are  certainly  those  of  the  13th.)     Op.  New 

28,  "  Four   Duets    for  Alto  and  Baritone,"      Works  of 
with    Piano   accompaniment,    dedicated   to  1864 

Madame  Amalie  Joachim.  Op.  29,  "Two 
Motets "  for  Five-part  Chorus,  a  capella^  in  the  poly- 
phonic style  of  Bach.  Op.  30,  "Sacred  Song"  of  Paul 
Flemming  ("Lass  dich  nur  nichts  dauern")  for  Four- 
part  Mixed  Chorus  with  Organ  or  Piano  accompaniment. 
In  this  composition  Brahms  works  out  a  double-canon 
in  the  voice  parts  to  an  independent  accompaniment. 
Op.  31,  "Three  Quartets  for  Solo  Voices,"  with  Piano. 
Op.  32,  "Nine  Songs  "  (words  by  Aug.  von  Platen  and 
G.  F.  Daumer),  for  Solo  Voice  and  Piano. 

The  next  five  years  were  to  a  great  extent  years  of 
wandering.     Fortune  was  not  as  yet  beaming  with  any 
alluring  warmth  upon  Brahms,  so  that  he 
wrote,   in    declining   an    invitation    to   visit      hnpudent 
North  Germany,  "  My  purse  has  always  an  Purse 

impudent  word   to   say."      But  walking   at 
least  was  cheap,  and  there  were  occasional  concert  tours 
to  take  him  farther  afield,  so  that  some  of  his  biographers 
have   assumed    that   he    had    temporarily  given  up  his 
residence  in  Vienna  ;  but  such  was  not  the  case. 

In   1864  appeared  one  of  Brahms'  two  compositions 
for  the  organ,  the  Fugue  in  C  flat,  published  without 




Opus  number  in  No.  29  of  the  Aligefneine  Miisikalische 
Zeitung  as  a  Musical  Supplement.     This  fugue  is  per- 
haps the  most  perfect  example  of  Brahms' 
Organ  skill  in  uniting  old-school  severity  with  the 

Fugue  and  greatest  warmth  of  sentiment.  Rieter- 
Folk-songs  Biedermann  also  brought  out  a  collection 
of  fourteen  "German  Folk-songs,"  arranged 
for  Four-part  Chorus  for  the  Sing-Akademie,  to  whom 
it  was  dedicated. 

In  passing,  it  might  be  well  to  refer  to  another 
similar  work  of  Brahms',  the  "  Volks-Kinderlieder " 
(Folk-songs  for  Children),  traditional  tunes, 
"  Volks-  dedicated  to  the  children  of  Robert  and 
Kinder-  Clara  Schumann,  and  published  (without 
lieder"  the  name  of  the  author)  by  Rieter-Bieder- 
mann  in  1858.  There  are  fourteen  of  them, 
and  they  have  become  widely  popular. 

In  March  1865  the  "A  major  Quartet"  was  given 
at  Leipsic,  with  Madame  Schumann  at  the  piano  and 
David  to  lead  the  strings.  This  year  Brahms 
Another  paid  a  long  visit  to  Kirchner  at  Ziirich, 
Concert  during  which  time  he  gave  some  concerts. 
Tour  notably  one  at  Winterthur,  in  which  he  was 

assisted  by  Kirchner  and  Fr.  Hegar,  the 
Zurich  violinist,  followed  in  the  fall  by  a  triumphant 
concert  tour  through  Mannheim,  Cologne  (where  he 
conducted  the  "D  major  Serenade"),  Carlsruhe  (where 
he  played  sonatas  with  Joachim),  and  Oldenburg. 

That  Brahms  had  really   "arrived"  is  evident  from 


the  increasing  respect  with  which  the  critics  regarded 
him.     The  Allgemeine  Musikalische  Zeitung 
(published  at  Charlottenburg),   the  leading  '■'Arrived^' 
German  musical  paper,  from  1863  on  treated        at  Last 
him    with    a    respect   that   no    other   con- 
temporary composer  either  merited  or  received. 

The  year  1865  witnessed  the  publication  of  the  first 
two  parts  of  the  Romances  from  Tieck's  fairy  tale,  Die 
Schone  Magelone  (Op.   11),  (the  other  three 
parts   appearing   in    1868).     These   poems,  The 

fifteen   in    number,   called   for   a    more   ex-      Magelone 
tended  setting  than  the  usual  lied  or  song,  Lieder 

but  Brahms  so  rose  to  the  occasion  that 
this  work  marks  the  perfection  of  his  lyric  art.     It  is 
dedicated  to  Julius  Stockhausen,  the  singer,  and  Brahms' 
intimate  friend. 

In  this  year  appeared  also  the  "Quintet"  (Op.  34), 
for  Piano,  Two  Violins,  Viola  and  'Cello,  dedicated  to 
H.R.  H.  Princess  Anne  of  Hesse,  and  pub- 
lished  by    Rieter-Biedermann.     This    com-  Piano 
position  was  finished  before  Brahms  came         Quintet 
to  Vienna  in    1863,   but  in   the  form   of  a 
String  Quintet  (two  'Celli) ;  it  was  afterwards  arranged 
as  a   "Sonata    for    two    Pianos,"   in    which 
form  it  was  published  in   1872  as  Op.  34,        Switzer- 
No.  2.  land 

In  October  1866  there  was  a  short  tour  again 

with  Joachim  through  German  Switzerland, 
touching   at   SchafThausen,  Winterthur,  Zurich,   among 



other  places,  and  they  were  everywhere  greeted  by 
enthusiastic  audiences.  The  tour  ended  in  November 
and  Brahms  returned  to  Vienna. 

Brahms  suffered  a  severe  blow  earUer  in  the  year  in 
the  death  of  his  mother  at  an  advanced  age.  This 
event  inspired  his  masterpiece,  the  "  German 
Death  of  Requiem,"  which  was  begun  and  carried  far 
Frau  along   toward  completion    this    summer   in 

Brahms  Switzerland.  (One  writer  expresses  the 
opinion  that  the  "  Requiem  "  was  inspired 
by  the  events  of  the  Austro-Prussian  War  (1866),  but 
the  fact  that  Brahms  was  probably  at  work  on  it  before 
the  war  had  begun,  and  that  no  other  authority  mentions 
this  as  the  source  of  inspiration — to  say  nothing  of  the 
fact  that  he  was  a  North  German  who  never  lost  his 
patriotism,  and  would  have  been  more  likely  to  write 
a  song  of  triumph  over  the  success  of  Prussia — seems 
to  establish  the  former  as  the  unquestionable  first 
cause).  Fuller  Maitland  suggests  that  the  work 
was  probably  the  outcome  of  both  events,  the  later 
choruses  being  more  especially  influenced  by  his 
mother's  death. 

In  the  fall  of  this  year  (1866),  in  company  with 
Madame  and  Marie  Schumann,  he  paid  a  visit  to 
Oldenburg.  Dietrich,  to  whom  we  are 
Brahms'  indebted  for  so  many  details  about  the 
'^  Bride''  personality  of  Brahms,  says  of  this  visit, 
"  The  old  humour  and  delight  in  teasing 
are  still  there.     Even  the  breakfast-hour  was  interest- 



ing,  and,  thanks  to  Brahms'  high  spirits,  merry."  It 
was  for  years  his  habit  in  his  letters  to  Dietrich  to 
refer  to  the  latter's  Httle  daughter,  Clara,  as  his  "  bride," 
and  the  son,  Max,  as  his  "  brother-in-law." 

In  the  year  1866  were  published  Op.  36,  "Second 
Sextet,"  for  Strings;  and  Op.  38,  "Sonata  for  Piano 
and  Violoncello"  in  E  minor,  dedicated 
to  Dr  Josef  Gausbacher.  Op.  35,  "  Studies  Publica- 
for  Pianoforte  (Variations,  twenty-eight  in  tions  of 
number,  on  a  Theme  by  Paganini)."     Op.  1866 

37,    "Three   Sacred    Choruses"    (to    Latin 
words),  for  Female  Voices,  a  capella.     These  choruses 
are  most  austere  in  style,  suggesting  Palestrina's  manner. 
Op.  44,    "  Twelve  Songs  and   Romances "  for  Female 
Chorus,  a  capella  (Piano  ad  libitum). 

In  January    1867   Hellmesberger   led   the   first   per- 
formance of  the  G  major  Sextet  (Op.  36),  which  was 
received  with  delight.     In  March,  Brahms 
gave   a   recital  at  which    the  recently-com-  Neiv 

pleted  "Paganini  Variations"  (Op.  35)  were  Triumphs 
enthusiastically  received.  As  an  encore  he 
played  the  Finale  from  Beethoven's  "Third  Rasoum- 
offsky  Quartet."  In  April  there  was  a  second  recital, 
in  which,  as  in  the  former,  he  played  but  few  of  his 
own  works,  as  usual.  Later  in  April  there  were  two 
concerts  at  Pesth ;  and  early  in  the  summer  appeared 
"Five  Songs  for  Four-part  Male  Chorus,"  a  capella 
(Op.  41),  (usually  known  as  the  ^^  Soldatenlieder").  Later 
in    the    year    appeared    Op.    39,     "  Four-hand    Piano 




Waltzes  "  (sixteen  in  all),  dedicated  to  Dr  Eduard  Hans- 
lick,  the  great  Viennese  critic  and  friend  of  Brahms. 

Brahms'  residence  was  now  at   No.  6  Post  Strasse, 
from  which  place  he  set  out,  late  in  the  spring,  on  a 
short  pleasure  trip  with  his  father  to  Upper 
Brahms        Austria,  through  Styria  and  Salzburg,  then 
on  a  to  Hamburg.     Brahms'  enjoyment   of  this 

Pleasure      trip    can   be   imagined   when   we   are   told 
Trip  that  hitherto   his  father  had  never   seen   a 

mountain,  and  had  hardly  ever  left  Ham- 
burg. Brahms  spent  the  summer  at  Oldenburg  and 
Ziirich,  visiting  friends,  and  returned  again  to  Hamburg 
for  a  short  visit  before  going  back  to  Vienna. 

It  was  during  this  summer  that  he  first  grew  a  beard 
— an  accession  with  which  he  shortly  dispensed.     How- 
ever, he  again  grew  one  about  1881,  giving 
Brahms'      as    his    reason,    "  A    clean-shaven    man    is 
Beard  taken  for  an  actor  or  a  priest."     He  never 

again  removed  it ;  in  fact  he  took  a  certain 
naive  pleasure  in  his  personal  appearance,  referring  with 
pride  to  the  fact  that  his  portrait  had  been  selected  as 
the  type  of  the  Caucasian  race  in  a  standard  work  on 

In  November,  Joachim  assisted  in  some  recitals  in 

and  about  Gratz,  in  Styria,  at  the  first  of  which  Brahms 

played   the    "  E   flat   minor    Scherzo "   and 

Gratz  the  "  Handel  Variations."     Heuberger,  who 

here  saw  him  for  the  first  time,  describes 

him  as  "a  blonde   and   slender   man,"  and  adds  that 



his  music  sounded  to  him — and  to  most  of  the 
audience,  no  doubt — "confused  and  uninteUigible." 
He  was  known  chiefly  through  his  arrangement  of  the 
chorale  melody,  "/«  the  Stillness  of  the  Night."  Only 
a  small  portion  of  his  original  work  was  known,  and 
then  only  by  the  musically  elect.  The  "B  flat  Sextet" 
and  "  B  major  Trio  "  had  been  tried  over  timidly. 

December  i,  1867,  is  an  important  date  in  the  life  of 
Brahms,  for   on    that    date   were   given   to  the    public 
the   first   three   numbers   of  the  "  German 
Requiem  "  at   a   Gesellschaft   concert,  and    hnporiant 
were   received  with  a  storm  of  theological  Event 

criticism,  because  the  composer  had  de- 
parted from  the  beaten  track  and  had  dared  to  select 
his  words  fur  himself  from  the  Bible.  The  "Requiem," 
except  for  the  fifth  chorus,  which  was  not  written  until 
the  summer  of  1868,  had  been  ready  for  performance 
in  the  previous  spring,  so  Herbeck,  the  Gesellschaft 
conductor,  arranged  to  give  the  first  half  as  above 
stated.  The  first  performance  of  the  entire  work  (as 
completed  at  this  time)  was  not  brought  about  until 
the  next  year  in  Bremen. 

The  chief  event  of  the  year  1868,  if  not  the  most 
important  of  his  whole  life  to  Brahms,  was  the  per- 
formance in  Bremen  Cathedral  on  Good 
Friday,  April  10,  of  the  "  German  Requiem  "  "  German 
(Op.  45),  under  the  direction  of  Reinthaler.  Requiem  " 
On  the  way  Brahms  had  stopped  at  Olden- 
burg, where  he  bad  given  a  concert  on  April  4.  playing 




the  "Handel  Variations"  and  the  Schumann  "Con- 
certo." His  father  came  from  Hamburg  especially  to 
hear  the  "  Requiem,"  and  Brahms'  cup  would  have  been 
full  but  for  one  thing.  "  Only  Madame  Schumann  will 
now  be  wanting;  but  I  shall  miss  her  presence  sadly," 
he  had  been  heard  to  say.  The  word  was  communi- 
cated to  her,  and  she  came  from  Baden-Baden  to  sur- 
prise him,  walking  into  the  Cathedral  on  his  arm  on 
the  day  of  the  performance. 

Never  had  the  Cathedral  been  so  full — the  audience 
numbered  2000  persons — never  had  enthusiasm  been 

so  great.  The  effect  of  the  performance 
Great  En-  was  overwhelming ;  and  it  became  evident 
thusiasm       at  once  that  the  "Requiem  "  ranked  among 

the  loftiest  music  ever  given  to  the  world. 
At  this  performance  the  fifth  number,  for  Soprano  Solo 
and  Chorus,  was  not  yet  in  existence,  so  Madame 
Joachim  sang,  "  I  know  that  my  Redeemer  liveth," 
and  Joachim  played  Schumann's  "Abendlied." 

The  work,  as   completed,  has  seven   numbers :    two 
baritone  solos  with  chorus,  a  soprano  solo  with  chorus, 

and  four  separate  choruses.  It  has  nothing 
Opening  in  common  with  liturgical  requiems,  having 
Chorus  to  do  with  death  and  eternity,  consolation 
and  Second  for  the  mourner,  closing  with  a  song  of 
Number       victory   over   death   and    the   grave.      The 

opening  chorus,  "  Blessed  are  they  that 
mourn,"  is  particularly  noticeable  for  the  richness  of 
its  accompaniment.    In  the  second  number,  a  "  Funeral 



March,"  the  composer  graphically  portrays  the  measured 
tread  of  the  cortege  by  the  use  of  triple  rhythm  (f), 
cutting  loose  from  ordinary  methods,  and,  by  the  use 
of  legitimate  musical  processes,  achieving  what  others 
strive  after  by  sensuous  or  purely  imitative  means. 
The  chorus  sings  the  words,  "  Behold  all  flesh  is  as 
grass,"  partly  in  unison  with  the  strange  and  impressive 
orchestral  music ;  the  movement  closes  with  a  long 
fugue,  "  The  redeemed  of  the  Lord  shall  return  again." 
The  third  number,  "  Lord,  make  me  to  know  the 
measure  of  my  days,"  opens  with  a  Baritone  solo, 
followed  by  two  choral  fugues,  solid  but 
difficult,  calling  for  a  chorus  of  unusual  dis-  Remaining 
cipline  and  intelligence,  the  second  being  Numbers 
developed  upon  an  uninterrupted  pedal 
point  into  a  grand  fugue.  The  fourth  number,  a 
Chorus,  "  How  lovely  is  Thy  dwelling-place,"  is  in  strik- 
ing contrast,  being  a  very  melodious  slow  movement. 
The  fifth  (this  is  the  number  that  Fuller  Maitland 
attributes  especially  to  the  influence  of  Frau  Brahms' 
death),  for  Soprano  Solo  and  Chorus  ("As  one  whom  his 
own  mother  comforteth,  so  will  I  comfort  you  "),  shows 
the  composer's  melodious  attractiveness  and  unusual 
power  as  a  song-writer.  In  the  next  number,  for  Chorus 
with  Baritone  Solo  responses,  "  Here  on  earth  we  have 
no  continuing  place,"  the  resurrection  of  the  dead  is 
depicted  in  fugal  passages  of  tremendous  power  and 
difficulty,  the  climax  of  the  entire  work,  closing  with  a 
brilliant  double  fugue  in  C  major  on  the  words,  "  Lord, 



Thou  art  worthy."  After  the  storm,  the  calm  in  the 
finale,  "Blessed  are  the  dead  which  die  in  the  Lord," 
containing  a  reminiscence  of  the  opening  number,  with 
harp  accompaniment,  and  closing  the  work  in  a  gentle 
but  deeply  serious  strain. 

After  the  performance  there  was  a  gathering  of 
Brahms'  friends,  to  the  number  of  more  than  a  hundred, 
at  the  old  Rathskeller.  Among  those  pre- 
Brahms'  sent  were,  of  course,  Brahms  and  his  father, 
Gathering  Madame  and  Marie  Schumann,  the  Rein- 
thalers  and  the  Joachims ;  also  the  Stock- 
hausens,  the  Grimms,  the  Dietrichs,  Max  Bruch, 
Richard  Barth — all  intimate  friends  of  Brahms — Rieter- 
Biedermann,  who  came  from  Switzerland,  and  after- 
wards published  the  "Requiem,"  and  others  from  a  dis- 
tance, one  coming  even  from  England.  There  was  a  quiet 
celebration,  culminating  in  a  toast  to  Brahms  by  the  hero 
of  the  day,  Reinthaler,  the  conductor  who  had  made  the 
success  possible,  and  a  final  toast  to  Reinthaler  by  Brahms. 

The  "Requiem"  was  repeated  April  27,  but  not  in 

the  Cathedral;   was  twice   given   at    Oldenburg  under 

Dietrich,  and  went  the  round  of  the  prin- 

Later  Per-    cipal   German   cities,    exciting  general   ad- 

formances     miration   and    appreciation.       It   was    first 

performed  in  Switzerland  and  in  England  in 

1873,  ^^s  given  by  Theodore  Thomas  at  the  Cincinnati 

Festival  of    1884,  and  in   New  York  by  the  Oratorio 

Society,  under  Frank  Damrosch,  March  24,  1904. 

Brahms  remained  in  North  Germany  for  a  part  of  the 


summer  with  the  Dietrichs  at  Oldenburg.  One  day, 
on  a  pleasure  trip  to  Wilhelmshafen,  where 
he  was  very  anxious  to  see  the  shipyards,  he  Inspiration 
was  very  serious  —  a  most  unusual  thing, 
for  he  was  generally  the  life  of  the  party — and  appeared 
deeply  moved  by  Holderlin's  "  Song  of  Destiny,"  which 
he  had  read  for  the  first  time  early  that  morning.  Later 
in  the  day  he  was  discovered  sitting  alone  by  the  sea, 
writing  furiously  the  first  sketches  for  his  setting  of  the 
poem,  which  appeared  soon  after,  Brahms  hurrying  to 
Hamburg  to  complete  the  work.  Later  in  the  summer 
he  made  a  prolonged  stay  at  Bonn,  where  he  at- 
tended to  the  publication  of  the  "Requiem,"  finished 
"  Rinaldo,"  and  wrote  many  songs. 

One  who  met  him  in  1865  describes  him  as  follows  : 
— "By  his  personal  appearance  and    powerful  playing 
(far  different  from  purely  technical  display) 
he  gave  the  impression  of  strong  personality.  Strong 

His  short,  square  figure,  almost  sandy  hair,  Personality 
protruding  lower  lip  (giving  a  cynical  expres- 
sion to  his  beardless  and  youthful  face)  were  all  striking 
and  hardly  prepossessing ;  yet  the  total  impression  was 
of  consummate  strength,  both  physical  and  moral.  His 
broad  chest,  Herculean  shoulders,  powerful  head  thrown 
back  energetically  when  playing,  fine  thoughtful  brow 
shining  as  with  inward  light,  Teutonic  eyes  with  won- 
derful fiery  glance — softened  only  by  fair  eyelashes — 
all  betrayed  an  artistic  personality  replete  with  the  spirit 
of  true  genius." 

D  49 


This  year  witnessed  the  publication  of  no  less  than 
eight  works,  the  list  including  Op.  40,  "  Trio  for  Piano, 
Violin  and  Waldhorn  "  (or  'Cello  or  Viola), 
Publica-  in  E  fiat.  (This  "Horn  Trio,"  as  it  is 
tions  of  familiarly  known,  is  replete  with  originality 
1868  and  romanticism:    the   theme   of  the   first 

movement  came  to  Brahms  on  the  wooded 
heights  above  Baden-Baden.)  Op.  46,  "Four  Songs," 
for  One  Voice  with  Piano.  Op.  47,  "Five  Songs," 
for  One  Voice  with  Piano.  Op.  48,  "Seven  Songs," 
for  One  Voice  with  Piano.  Op.  49)  "Five  Songs," 
for  One  Voice  with  Piano.  (These  four  numbers 
(Op.  46,  47,  48,  49)  were  published  together  in  Oc- 
tober.) Op.  42,  "Three  Songs,"  for  Six-part  Mixed 
Chorus,  a  capella.  The  "  German  Requiem  "  (Op.  45), 
and  "Four  Songs"  (Op.  43),  for  One  Voice  with 

Brahms  had  now  reached  his  full  growth.  The 
struggle  for  acknowledgment  was  over,  the  victory  won, 

and  he  was  henceforth  regarded  as  the 
Full  Frui-  greatest  living  German  composer,  with  the 
tioti  (1869-  possible  exception  of  Wagner.  His  time, 
1897)  except  for  the  period  from    1872  to    1875, 

was  now  spent  entirely  in  composing  and 
editing  masterpieces,  with  an  occasional  short  tour  to 
play  or  direct  his  own  compositions. 

In  1869  two  concert  tours  were  projected — one  to 
Holland,  the  other  to  Russia,  but  neither  was  carried 
out.      This   summer   was   spent   at   Lichtenthal,    near 



Baden-Baden,  where  Madame  Schumann  had  her  home 
for  many  years.  It  had  been  his  habit,  and  continued 
so  until  her  death,  to  spend  the  whole  or  a  part  of 
each  summer  near  her :  during  the  succeeding  years  he 
seldom  went  to  North  Germany.  (Dietrich  this  year 
brought  out  a  Symphony,  which  he  dedicated  to 

The  published  works  of  this  year  include  three  Opus 
numbers,  as  follows  : — 

Op.  50,  "  Rinaldo,"  Cantata  for  Tenor 

Solo,  Male  Chorus,   and  Orchestra.      Works  of 
(Goethe's  poem   is   derived  from  an  1869 

episode    in    Tasso's   Jerusalem    De- 
Op.    52,  "  Liebesiieder  {Love  Song)  Waltzes,"   for 
Piano,   Four  Hands,  and  Voices  ad  lib  (verses 
from  Daumer's  Polydora.) 
Op.    52A,  ditto  for   Piano,    Four    Hands  (without 
Voice  parts). 
These    "Waltzes,"     eighteen    in    number,    were    a 
departure  from    the   traditional  dance   music,    in   that 
Brahms  has  written  four -part  vocal  parts 
to    accompany    the    dance,    just    as     the       ^^  Liebes- 
dancers    have    been    in    the    habit,    from  lieder 

time    out    of    mind,    of    singing    an    im-      IVallzes" 
promptu    accompaniment    as    they   dance. 
"They   are  as   dainty    as   Strauss   and   as    melodious 
as  Schubert." 

Two  compositions  without    Opus    number   were   an 


important  contribution  to  piano  literature,  namely,  the 
"6tude  after  Chopin,"  and   "Rondo  after 
Hungarian  Weber."     This  year  also  were  brought  out 
Dances  the  first  two  books  of  the  most  popular  of 

Brahms'  works,  the  "  Hungarian  Dances," 
for  Piano,  Four  Hands.  (The  third  and  fourth  books 
appeared  in  1880.)  These  "Dances"  are  national 
melodies  by  Hungarian  composers,  arranged  by  Brahms, 
and  completed  in  1867.  The  composers  of  the  original 
melodies  are  named  in  the  AUgemeine  Musikalische 
Zettung,  1874,  page  348.  The  authorship  of  these 
dances  gave  rise  to  an  idle  controversy  and  attack  upon 
Brahms,  but  entirely  without  reason,  as  the  title-page 
bears  no  Opus  number,  and  distinctly  declares  that  they 
were  "  Arranged  by  J.  Brahms."  He  arranged  the  first 
set  for  Orchestra  as  well. 

In  January  1870  appeared  the  "Rhapsodic"  (Frag- 
ment  from    Goethe's   Harzreise    im    Winter),    for  Alto 
Solo,  Male  Chorus  and  Orchestra  (Op.  53). 
'' Rhapso-     This  work   and   "  Rinaldo "  are   the  finest 
die''  Male  Choruses  in  existence.     The  "Rhap- 

sodic" Brahms  regarded  as  the  truest  ex- 
pression of  his  deepest  feelings,  and  (it  is  said)  loved 
it  so  much  that  he  laid  it  under  his  pillow  at  night  to 
have  it  always  near  him  (though  that  doesn't  sound 
much  like  Brahms).  In  February  he  sent  a  copy  to 
Dietrich,  with  the  words,  "  I  am  sending  you  my 
'  Rhapsodic ' ;  the  conductors  will  not  exactly  fight 
for  the  Opus,  but  it  will  perhaps  be  a  satisfaction  to 



you  to  see  that  I  do  not  always  write  in  such  frivolous 
time  as  f  "  (referring  to  the  "  Liebeslieder  Waltzes "),  and 
adds,  "  I  am  having  a  luxurious  musical  time  here, 
Rubinstein,  Meistersinger,  and  what  not ! " 

On  January  20,  187 1,  for  the  first  time  in  twelve 
years,  Brahms  played  the  "D  minor  Concerto"  before 
a  Viennese  audience,  at  a  Philharmonic 
Society  Concert,  and  this  time  it  was  re-  Pianoforte 
ceived  with  acclamation — the  critics  and  Concerto 
the  public  had  grown  up  to  it.  Dr  Helm  succeeds  in 
said    of  it   at   this    time,    "  It    is  the  most  Vienna 

original  production  of  its  composer,  except 
the  'German  Requiem,'  and  the  most  genial  (!)   com- 
position of  its  kind  since  the  days  of  Beethoven." 

On    Good    Friday  the    "  Requiem "  (now  complete) 
was  given   again  at   Bremen    Cathedral,   together  with 
the    "  Hallelujah "   (first    chorus    from    the 
"Triumphlied,"    Op.    55).      The    effect    of  New 

the   latter    composition    was   overwhelming        Master- 
and  grand.      Later   in    the   year,   at  Carls-  pieces 

ruhe,  occurred  the  first  performance  of  the 
"Schicksalslied"  (Song  of  Destiny),  from  Friedr.  Hol- 
derlin's    Hyperion,    perhaps  the   most  widely    loved   of 
all  Brahms'  compositions,  and  the  most  perfect  of  his 
smaller  choral  works. 

The  "  Triumphlied  "  was  given  entire  at  the  Dussel- 
dorf  Musical  Festival,  and  met  with  enormous  success.' 

'  According  to  Upton,  it  was  first  performed  at  the  51st  Festival 
of  the  Lower  Rhine  at  Cologne  in  1873,  though  this  is  doubtful,  as  it 
was  certainly  performed  there  a  year  later. 




It  was  inspired  by  the  successes  of  the  German  forces 
in  the  Franco-Prussian  War,  and  is  dedicated  to  the 
Emperor  William  I.  The  words  are  taken  from  the  19th 
chapter  of  the  Revelation  of  St  John,  and 
^^ Triumph-  the  work  is  set  for  eight-part  Chorus  through- 
lied"  out,  except  for  a  few  measures  for  Baritone 

solo.  It  consists  of  three  broadly-planned 
choruses  :  the  first,  "  Hallelujah,  Praise  the  Lord,"  intro- 
duces the  German  National  Hymn,  "  Heil  dir  im  Sieger- 
kranz,"  and  the  third,  the  chorale,  "  Now  thank  we  all  our 
God,"  in  the  bass;  the  whole  ending  with  "  Hallelujah." 
It  must  have  been  about  this  time  that  an  episode 
took  place  of  which  Heuberger  speaks.  It  seems  that 
Brahms  had  been  much  pleased  with  the 
'■'■  j^sthetic  country  round  about  Gratz,  in  Styria,  and 
Women"  wanted  to  rent  a  house  for  the  summer  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Gratwein.  He  found 
a  place  that  suited  him,  and  settled  down  for  the  sum- 
mer, but  suddenly  left  after  a  few  days — literally  driven 
away,  as  he  explained  afterwards,  by  two  very  "aesthetic" 
women.  He  could  not  endure  people  who  showed  that 
they  were  running  after  him. 

The  published  compositions  of  this  year  (1871)  in- 
clude  a    "Gavotte"  (Gliick),    dedicated  to 
Publica-        Clara   Schumann  (without   Opus  number) ; 
tions  oj         the  "Schicksalslied"  (Song  of  Destiny,  from 
187 1  Holderlin's  Hyperion),  (Op.  54),  for  Chorus 

and   Orchestra,  brought  out  in  December; 
Op.    57,   "  Lieder  und   Gesange,"  for   Solo    Voice  and 



Piano   (the   words    by    G.  F.  Daumer) ;    and    Op.    58, 
"  Lieder  und  Gesiinge,"  for  Solo  Voice  with  Piano. 

In  1872  Brahms  accepted  the  appointment  as  Director 
of  the  concerts  of  the  Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde 
(Society  of  the  Friends  of  Music),  succeed- 
ing Herbeck,  who  resigned  to  devote  his  Gesellschaft 
entire  time  to  his  duties  as  Court  Capell-  der  Musik- 
meister  and  Conductor  of  the  Opera.  freunde 
Brahms  gave  extraordinary  lustre  and  im- 
portance to  these  concerts  by  the  performances  of 
the  great  choral  works  of  Bach  and  Handel,  giving 
Handel's  "Saul,"  "Solomon,"  "Alexander's  Feast,"  the 
"  Dettingen  Te  Deum  "  and  the  Organ  Concerto  in  D. 

At  this  time  he  was  still,  as  described  by  one  who 
sang   under   him,    "  rather  delicate,   slim-looking,  with 
a  beardless  face  of  ideal  expression."      As 
he   afterwards    described   himself   to   Wid-  Still 

mann,  "  I  suppose  I  did  look  somewhat  Delicate- 
like  a  doubtful  candidate  for  the  ministry  looking 
in  those  days."  The  "Triumphlied"  was 
published  this  year,  as  was  also  a  song,  without  Opus 
number,  "  Mondnacht "  (Moonlight),  words  by  Jos. 
von  Eichendorff. 

In    1873   Brahms  again   visited  Oldenburg,  and  was 
still  joking   about   his   "bride"  (Dietrich's 
daughter).      The   new   works   of  this   year      Works  of 
are: —  1873 

Op.  51,  "Two  Quartets,"  for  two  Violins, 
Viola   and    'Cello,   dedicated   to    Dr  Theodor    Billroth 


of  Vienna.  No.  i  in  C  minor  (in  the  style  of  Beeth- 
oven) ;  No.  2  in  A  minor  (Schubert-like  in  character). 

Op.  56A,  "  Variations  on  a  Theme  by  Haydn  "  (eight 
in  number),  for  Orchestra  (published  in  January  1874). 

Op.  56B,  the  same  for  two  Pianos,  published  in  Nov- 
ember 1873. 

These  "Variations  for  Orchestra"  were  built  on  a 
theme  ("Chorale  Sancti  Antonii"),  from  Haydn's 
"Divertimento"  for  Wind  Instruments, 
"  Haydfi  and  were  written  during  the  summer  of 
Variaiiofis"  1873  ^^  Tutzing,  on  the  Starnberger  See. 
They  were  first  performed  at  Vienna  on 
November  2.  This  was  the  first  time  that  "Variations 
for  Orchestra  "  had  appeared  as  a  separate  number. 

Op.  59,  "  Lieder  und  Gesange,"  for  One  Voice  with 
Piano  (including  the  "  Regenlied,"  the  theme  of  which 
Brahms  was  so  fond  of  that  he  used  it,  in  altered  form, 
in  the  next  song,  "  Nachklange,"  and  in  later  instru- 
mental compositions). 

Brahms  was  accorded  an  enthusiastic  reception  early 
in  1874  at  Leipsic  and  Munich,  and  in  May  at  Cologne, 
where    the    "  Triumphlied "    was    on    the 
Later  programme   of  the    Lower   Rhenish   Music 

Successes  of  Festival.  It  was  also  given  the  same  year 
"  Triumph-  at  Breslau  and  Berlin  (through  the  influence 
lied"  of  Stockhausen),  and  late  in  the  spring  at 

the  Musical  Festival  in  Zurich,  under 
Hegar,  Brahms  being  present.  (He  spent  nearly  all 
of  that  summer  at  Rueschlikon,  near  Zurich.) 



He  received  this  year  the  first  of  many  decorations, 
when  the  King  of  Bavaria  honoured  him  with  the  Maxi- 
milian Order  of  Arts  and  Sciences.     It  was 
on   December  29,  at  Breslau,  that  Brahms  First 

first  met  Max  Kalbeck,  poet,  critic,  and  his  Decoration 
future  biographer. 

This  year  were  published  Op.  6x,  "Four  Duets  for 
Soprano  and  Alto  "  with  Piano.     Op.  62,  "  Seven  Songs 
for    Mixed    Chorus,"    a    capella.       (These 
"Deutsche  Volkslieder"  consist   of  tunes.       Works  of 
religious  and  secular,  from  Meister,  Kretsch-  1874 

mer    and  Zuccalmaglio,   arranged   for   four 
voices,  and  dedicated  to  the  Vienna  Sing-Akademie.) 
Op.  63,   "  Lieder  und  Gesange,"  for  One  Voice  with 
Piano.     Op.  64,  "Quartets  for  Four  Solo  Voices  and 

In  March  1875  there  was  a  sensational  performance 
of  the  "German  Requiem  "  in  the  great  Music  Hall  in 
Vienna,  which  made  Brahms' Viennese  fame 
secure.     This  was  all  the  more  remarkable  '■^ Requietn" 
because,   only  a  few  days    before,  Wagner  and 

had  given  a  performance  of  fragments  from  "Ring" 
the  "  Ring,"  and  was,  for  the  time,  the  centre 
of  musical  interest.  Brahms  had  not  planned  the 
"  Requiem  "  performance  as  a  demonstration  against 
Wagner,  and  no  one  would  have  predicted  its  colossal 
success,  least  of  all  Brahms  himself. 

This  same  year  the  Gesellschaft  gave  the  Bach  "St 
Matthew  Passion  "  and  Bruch's  "Odysseus,"  the  latter 



being   the   last   performance    under    the    direction    of 
Brahms   before  his  resignation   took  effect. 
Last  These    performances,    as    well    as    all    the 

Gesellschaft  others  which  he  directed,  went  off  beautifully. 
Concerts  Brahms  having  trained  the  chorus  excellently 
and  conducted  with  great  earnestness.  He 
resigned  this  post  for  the  same  reason  that  he  had  given 
up  his  position  in  the  Sing-Akademie,  in  order  that  he 
might  have  greater  leisure.  He  was  succeeded  by 

The  performance  of  "Odysseus"  took  place  in  the 
morning,  and  was    followed    by  the  solemn  ceremony 
of  presenting  Brahms  with   an   illuminated 
Public  address,  acknowledging    his   great   achieve- 

Ceremony  ments  as  Conductor  of  the  Society,  and  ex- 
pressing the  Society's  and  Chorus's  regrets 
at  his  resignation.  A  local  poet  delivered  a  most  eulo- 
gistic oration,  which  Brahms,  looking  very  much  bored, 
merely  acknowledged  with  a  "Thank  you  very  much," 
then,  taking  the  folio  containing  the  address  under  his 
arm,  walked  away.  Such  official  proceedings  were  ex- 
ceedingly distasteful  to  him.  Far  more  to  his  liking  was 
the  supper  at  one  of  the  leading  hotels,  to  which  on  the 
evening  of  that  day  a  number  of  friends  sat  down  with 
him,  and  which  the  presence  of  ladies  made  the  more 
acceptable  to  the  guest  of  the  evening. 

This  and  the  two  succeeding  summers  were  spent  at 
Ziegelhausen,  near  Heidelberg,  in  his  usual  retired  way, 
in   a   simple   country  house   surrounded  by  a  garden. 



Only  a  few  friends  went  in  and  out :  he  lived  only  for  his 

health  and  his  art,  and  was  often  to  be  seen 

walking  about  for  hours  at  a  time  in  the  early  Ziegel- 

morning  lost  in  thought.     Simple  and  plain  hauseti 

in  his    habits,  he  wished  to   be  free  from 

all  restraints  of  society  and  to  work  and  rest  in  his  own 

way.     For  recreation  he  enjoyed  reading  fairy  tales  and 

legends  in  the  evenings,  and  desired  his  friends  to  keep 

him  supplied  with  them.     He  always  left  strict  orders 

that  no  one,  not  even  his  best  friend,  was  to  enter  his 

room  during  his  absence. 

Many  tried  to  get  near  him,   and  many  invitations 
were  sent  to  him,  but  all  were  declined.     Even  noble- 
men were  treated  with  scant  ceremony  when 
intruding  upon  his  privacy,  though  all  ser-        Popular 
vants  and  children  fell  captive  to  the  charm  with 

of  his  manner  toward  them.  When  he  went  Children 
out  the  village  children  followed  him  about, 
leaving  their  games  to  extend  their  dirty  hands  in  greet- 
ing. He  had  always  a  smile  and  pleasant  greeting  for 
them,  and  was  in  the  habit  of  giving  them  chocolates  and 
sweets.  One  day  he  came  home  in  great  good  humour, 
saying  to  his  landlady,  "Just  see.  Next  year  I  shall  be 
elected  to  some  office  in  the  parish  ;  I  have  become  very 
popular  in  Ziegelhausen." 

One  day  Brahms  with  several  friends  gave  orders  to 
an  innkeeper  to  have  a  favourite  drink  prepared  while 
they  went  for  a  short  walk  upon  the  Neckar.  The  inn- 
keeper's wife  put  the  beverage,  when  completed,  aside 



to  cool,    when    a   group  of   Heidelberg    students    dis- 
covered   it,    and,    in    spite   of  all   protests, 
Students'      drank  every  drop.     On   their  visiting-cards 
Prank  they  wrote  humorous  verses,  and  left  them 

to  be  given  to  Brahms  on  his  return.  He 
laughed  heartily  at  their  prank,  though  his  friends  did 
not  relish  the  joke  quite  so  much. 

In  February  1876  there  was  another  concert  tour, 
which  took  in  Miinster  (Westphalia),  Koblenz,  Wies- 
baden, and  other  places.  At  Wiesbaden 
Aristocratic  x^'-A^^di  the  Princess  of  Hesse-Barchfeld,  a 
Friends  friend  and  admirer  of  Brahms,  who,  after  the 
concert  there,  gave  a  supper,  where  he  was  the 
guest  of  honour.  This  was  one  of  the  occasions  of  this 
nature  when  Brahms  was  thoroughly  happy  and  animated, 
and  he  joined  in  a  very  lively  game  of  billiards  afterward 
with  the  utmost  enjoyment.  Just  before  leaving,  the 
Princess  presented  him  with  a  handsome  ebony  box,  to 
the  lid  of  which  was  attached  a  laurel  wreath  of  silver, 
each  leaf  of  which  bore  engraved  upon  it  the  title  of  one 
of  his  works.  Next  morning  he  played  at  a  musical 
matinee  at  the  Princess's  house  his  "String  Quartet  in 
C  minor "  (Op.  60),  with  the  Frankfort  String  Quartet. 
With  the  exception  of  the  Princess  of  Hesse-Barchfeld 
and  the  Landgravine  Anne  of  Hesse  (whom  he  admired 
for  her  simple  and  modest,  yet  cordial  and  affable,  man- 
ner, no  less  than  for  her  considerable  musical  talent), 
and,  later  in  life,  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Meiningen, 
Brahms  did  not  care  particularly  for  personal  intercourse 



with  the  "  highest  spheres  of  society,"  as  he  called  them. 

Part  of  the  summer  of  1876  was  spent  at  Sassnitz, 
island  of  Riigen,  in  the  Baltic  Sea,  in  company  with 
Georg  Henschel.  This  was  a  most  happy 
time  for  Brahms.  He  was  very  fond  of  the  Sassnifz 
sea,  being  a  fine  swimmer,  and  liked  to  dive 
with  eyes  open  for  coins  or  other  conspicuous  objects 
on  the  sea  floor.  He  would  walk  about  here  generally 
with  waistcoat  unbuttoned  and  hat  in  hand,  always  with 
spotless  linen,  but  without  collar  or  tie,  which  he  donned 
only  at  iabk  d'hote.  His  healthy,  ruddy  skin  bore  wit- 
ness to  his  habit  of  spending  much  time  in  the  open  air 
in  all  kinds  of  weather.  "  His  whole  appearance — short, 
broad-chested,  with  hair  falling  almost  to  the  shoulders 
— vividly  recalled  some  portraits  of  Beethoven."  His 
appetite  was  excellent  (he  was  always  fond  of  good  living), 
and  it  was  his  habit  every  evening  to  drink  three  glasses 
of  beer,  always  finishing  with  his  beloved  "  Kaffee " 
(coffee).  Henschel  wrote  of  him  :  "  During  all  these 
days  Brahms  has  never  spoken  of  anything  which  does 
not  really  interest  him,  never  said  anything  superfluous 
or  commonplace,  except  at  table  d'hote,  where  he  pur- 
posely talks  of  hackneyed  things." 

Brahms  had  changed  his  place  of  residence,  and  lived 
now  at  No.  4  Carlgasse,  which  remained  his  place  of 
abode  for  many  years.  On  November  4  (1876)  the 
"First  Symphony"  (Op.  68)  in  C  minor  was  given, 
from  MS.,  at  Carlsruhe.'     Brahms  had  been  at  work  on 

'  It  was  performed  within  the  next  few  months  successively  at 
Stuttgart,  Mannheim,  and  the  Gewandhaus  in  Leipsic. 




it  for  fully  ten  years,  and  the  cordial  reception  accorded 
it  showed  that  the  labour  had  not  been  in 
First  vain.      His   painstaking    care    and    self-re- 

Symphony  straint  in  the  creation  of  this  masterpiece 
are  as  commendable  as  they  are  unusual. 
Imagine  a  German  composer,  of  all  people,  waiting 
until  he  was  forty-three  years  old  before  producing 
his  first  Symphony !  The  Symphony,  in  character 
passionate  and  at  times  sombre,  like  the  "  D  minor 
Concerto,"  consists  of  four  movements,  and  is  char- 
acterised throughout  by  a  feeling  of  striving,  questioning, 
complaining  and  longing. 

The  published  works  of  1875  and  1876  were: — 
Op.  60,   "Third   Quartet"   in   C  minor,  for   Piano, 
Violin,  Viola  and  'Cello.     In  the  last  move- 
Works  of     ment  of  this  "  Quartet "  Brahms  employed 

1875  a/i^     the   theme   of  the   "Regenlied"   (Op.    59, 

1876  No.  3).     In  this  composition  he  was  accused 
of  plagiarism  from  Mendelssohn's  C  minor 

Trio.  One  musician  who  mentioned  the  accusation  to 
Brahms  received  the  placid  reply  :  "  True,  such  things 
will  happen  sometimes,  even  to  the  best  of  us ;  the  pity 
only  is  that  every  donkey  should  go  and  find  it  out  at 

Op.  65,  "  New  Liebeslieder  Waltzes,"  for  Piano,  Four 
Hands,  and  Four  Voices.  The  words  for  these  were 
again  taken  from  Daumer's  Polydora — there  were  in  all 
fourteen  waltzes,  with  Finale  in  f  time. 

Op.  66,  "Five  Duets,"  for  Soprano  and  Alto  with 


Piano.  Op.  67,  "Quartet  No.  3"  in  B  flat,  for  Two 
Violins,  Viola  and  'Cello,  dedicated  to  Professor  Th. 
W.  Engelmann,  of  Utrecht,  and  full  of  a  Mozartean 
delicacy  and  humour. 

In   1877  the  University  of  Cambridge,  England,  con- 
ferred upon  Brahms  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Music. 
When  the  degree  was  first  offered  to  him, 
it  was  suggested  that  he  write  a  new  work     Doctor  of 
for  the   occasion.     He  replied  that  if  any  Music 

of  his  old   works  seemed  good  enough  he 
would  be  happy  to  receive  the  honour,  but  that  he  was 
too  busy  (/)  to  write  a  new  one. 

Early  in  the  year  the  University  had  decided  to  confer 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Music,  honoris  causa,  upon  both 
Brahms   and   Joachim.      Joachim   at   once 
accepted  the   invitation,   together  with  the       Brahms' 
conditions — to  receive  the  degree  in  person  Thesis 

and  to  furnish  a  new  composition  as  thesis 
to  be  performed  on  the  day  of  the  ceremony.  Brahms, 
on  the  contrary,  had  no  desire  nor  intention  of  visiting 
England,  looking  upon  it  as  probably  the  least  musical 
country  in  Europe,  and  besides  set  no  store  whatever 
upon  honorary  degrees.  Therefore  he  declined  to  be 
present,  but  was  willing  to  receive  the  degree  if  con- 
ferred in  absentia,  and  offered  as  his  thesis  the  "  C  minor 
Symphony  "  (known  for  this  reason  in  England  as  the 
"  Cambridge  Symphony "),  which  had  been  performed 
the  previous  November  at  Carlsruhe.  After  some 
consideration    the    offer   was    accepted,    and    the    date 



of  the   ceremony   was   fixed   on    March   8th   at   Cam- 

Brahms  had  been  known  heretofore  in  England  chieflly 
as  a  writer  of  chamber  music,   and  had   achieved  no 

popularity,  being  understood  only  by  the 
Brahms  few.  The  "  First  Symphony "  opened  the 
in  eyes  of  English  music-lovers  and  was  the 

E?igland       beginning    of    a     widespread    appreciation 

throughout  England.  The  Symphony  was 
performed  by  the  Cambridge  University  Musical  Society 
under  C.  Villiers  Stanford,  and  the  impression  was  over- 
whelming. The  "Schicksalslied  "  was  also  given  at  this 
concert  and  added  to  the  impression  produced  by  the 

On  December  24th  the  "Second  Symphony"  in  D 
(Op.   73),  was  given  for  the  first  time  by  the  Vienna 

Philharmonic  Orchestra,  under  Richter,  and 
Second  was  well  received.  This  Symphony,  in 
Symphony     marked   contrast   to    the    first,    is    tranquil, 

Mozart-like  in  its  general  character,  and,  like 
it,  consists  of  four  movements.  "  It  is  an  idyll,  full  of 
deep  content,  sparkling  life,  magic  charm  and  happiness 
— a  glimpse  of  Nature — a  spring  day  amid  soft  mosses, 
springing  woods,  birds'  notes,  and  the  bloom  of  flowers." 
It  was  published  in  1878. 

The  following  works  appeared  in  that  and  the  preced- 
year : — 

Op.  68,  "  First  Symphony  "  in  C  minor. 
Op.  69,  "Nine  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  with  Piano. 


Op.  70,  "  Four  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano. 

Op.  71,  "  Five  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano. 

Op.  72,  "Five  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano. 

Op.  73,  "Second  Symphony"  in  D  major. 

Op.  75,  "  Ballads  and  Romances,"  for  Two  Voices 
and  Piano,  dedicated  to  Julius  Allgeyer. 
Upon  the  death  of  Herbeck  in  1877  Brahms  suc- 
ceeded him  as  a  Commissioner  of  the  Ministry  of 
Education.  His  duties  in  this  position  were  to  pass 
on  the  applicants  for  State  aid  in  pursuing  their 
studies  and  artistic  pursuits.  It  was  in  this  capacity 
that  he  was  able  to  render  Dvorak  substantial  service, 
as  well  as  by  prevailing  upon  Simrock  to  undertake 
the  publication  of  the  works  of  the  struggling 

In  1878  Brahms  went  on  the  first  of  those  Italian 
journeys  which  meant  so  much  to  him  during  the  latter 
part  of  his  life,  his  companion  being  Dr  Bill- 
roth. The  travellers  visited  Rome,  Naples  First 
and  Sicily.  Similar  trips  were  planned  for  Italian 
the  following  springs  (1879  to  1882),  and  Journey 
probably  carried  out,  for  Brahms  was  cer- 
tainly in  Rome  in  1882.  They  avoided  the  large  hotels, 
preferring  the  small,  purely  Italian  inns.  In  preparing 
for  this  first  journey,  Brahms  wrote  to  his  companion, 
"I  beg  of  you,  before  passing  the  frontier,  to  put  two 
or  three  little  blue  packets  of  French  tobacco  {caporal) 
in  your  pockets  and  bags  for  me." 

Early  in  1S79  Brahms  went  to  Frankfort  to  be  present 

E  65 


at  the  first  performance  of  Dietrich's  opera,  "Robin 
Hood,"  going  thence  to  Bremen  to  conduct 
Doctor  of  the  third  performance  of  the  "  Requiem." 
Philosophy  Later  in  the  year  the  University  of  Breslau 
made  him  a  Doctor  of  Philosophy,  giving 
him  precedence  over  all  other  living  composers  of  Church 
music.  He  treated  this  University  better  than  Cam- 
bridge, for,  at  a  concert  given  in  honour  of  the  event  of 
conferring  the  degree,  Brahms  brought  out  two  new 
compositions,  the  first  of  which  had  evidently  been 
written  for  the  occasion.  These  were  the  two  over- 
tures, "  Academic  Festival "  and  "  Tragic  "  (Op.  80 
and  81).  The  first  of  these  was  essentially  popular  in 
character,  being  built  upon  popular  student  songs  and 
winding  up  with  "  Gaudeamus."  It  was  received  with 
hearty  enthusiasm.  A  few  months  later  it  was  given 
in  England,  first  at  the  Crystal  Palace  under  Manns, 
and  shortly  after  at  the  Richter  Concerts.  The  "  Tragic," 
as  its  name  implies,  is  marked  by  deep  earnestness, 
resignation  and  melancholy. 

On  January  14th  the  "Violin  Concerto  "  (Op.  77), 
was  played  by  Joachim,  and  received  an  ovation.     It 
was  pronounced  by  the  critics  second  only 
Violin  to  Beethoven's.    It  is  in  style  less  a  concerto 

Concerto       than   a   sonata  concertante.     The   orchestra 
and  does  not  seem  subordinated  nor  the  instru- 

Sonata  ment  pushed  to  the  fore  by  marked  technique 

and   passage-work.     It  is  not   a   repertoire 
piece,  but  rather  for  the  inner  circle  of  Brahms'  admirers. 


From  a  photograph 

To  face  page  66 


In  November  Joachim  played  the  G  major  "Violin 
Sonata "  at  a  Hellmesberger  concert  with  the  usual 
success.  To  Joachim  and  his  quartet  (including 
D'Ahna,  Wirth  and  Robert  Hausmann)  Brahms  owes 
a  great  debt  for  the  loving  labour  which  they  bestowed 
upon  his  chamber  works,  by  their  artistic  rendition 
doing  as  much  as  anything  to  establish  his  fame  and 
popularise  his  works. 

The  new  publications  of  1879  were  two  works  with- 
out Opus  number  from  the  press  of  Senff 
("Presto"    after    Bach,   and    "Chaconne"  Motets 

after  Bach),   and    Op.    74,   "  Two   Motets "  and 

for  Mixed  Chorus,  a  capella,  dedicated  to  Piano 

Philipp  Spitta  and  written  in  the  old  style.  Pieces 

Op.    76,   "  Piano  Pieces "   (Capriccios   and 
Intermezzi).     Op.  77,  "Violin  Concerto"  in  D  major, 
written  for  and  dedicated  to  Jos.  Joachim.     This  is  a 
magnificent  work,  of  all  modern  concertos  the  one  most 
worthy  to  stand  beside  Beethoven's. 

In  1880,  on  the  occasion  of  the  unveiling  of  the 
Schumann  Denkmal  over  his  grave  at  Bonn  on  the 
Rhine,  Brahms  took  active  part  in  the 
exercises,  playing  the  pianoforte  part  in  Schumann 
Schumann's  "  Pianoforte  Quartet "  in  E  Denkmal 
major  (Op.  47),  and  conducting  the  music 
throughout  the  exercises.  All  the  music  performed  at 
the  concert  was  Schumann's  with  the  exception  of 
Brahms'  "Violin  Concerto"  (Op.  77),  which  Joachim 



The  summer  of  this,  as  well  as  many  subsequent 
years,    was   spent  at   Ischl.      The   works  of  this    year 

were  :— Op.  78,  "  Sonata  for  Pianoforte  and 
Violin  Violin  "  in  G  major.     In  the  last  movement 

Sonata  and  of  this  sonata  Brahms  again  used  the  theme 
Rhapsodies   of  the    "  Regenlied,"   of  which  he  seemed 

especially  fond.  Op.  79,  "Two  Rhap- 
sodies," for  Piano,  dedicated  to  Frau  Elizabeth  von 

On  January  4,  1881,  the  two  overtures  were  given 
privately  at  Breslau  without  special  success,  and  on 
January  13  at  Leipsic.  Later  in  the  month  Brahms 
received     an    offer    from    the    London    Philharmonic 

Orchestra  to  act  as  Conductor,  but  liberty 
Called  to  was  too  sweet,  so  the  offer  was  declined. 
London         The    summer   of    this    year   was    spent    at 

Ischl,  excepting  the  month  of  August,  which 
was  spent  at  Pressbaum,  near  Vienna ;  and  after  the 
return  to  the  city  in  October  came  a  long  concert 
tour,  in  which  the  B  flat  "  Piano  Concerto  "  (Op.  83)  was 
produced  at  Buda-Pesth,  and  repeated  at  Meiningen, 
Stuttgart,  Basle,  Ziirich  and  Vienna. 

The  published  works  of  this  year  in- 
"  Chorale-  elude  "  Chorale- vorspiel  {Chorale  Prelude) 
vorspieV      and    Fugue"   ("  O   Traurigkeit,    O    Herze- 

leid ")  for  Organ,  which  appeared  in 
the  Musikalischen  Wochenblatt,  Op.  80,  "  Aca- 
demic Festival  Overture,"  and  Op.  81,  "  Tragic  Over- 
ture. " 



Op.  82,  "Niinie,"  a  Choral  Ode  (words  from  Schiller), 
for  Chorus  and  Orchestra  (Harp  ad  libitum),  was  dedi- 
cated to  Frau  Hofrath  Henriette  Feuerbach, 
the  mother  of  Anselm  Feuerbach,  the  lamen-  Niinie 

ted  artist,  who  had  been  a  true  art  companion 
of  Brahms,  and  whose  death  had  suggested  the  work 
Its  first  performance  in  England  was  in  March  1883, 
but  it  was  not  cordially  received,  for  the  reason  that 
Goetz's  setting  of  the  same  words,  which  had  been 
enthusiastically  received  shortly  before,  had  made  a 
second  setting  unwelcome. 

It  was  Brahms'  good  fortune  to  enjoy  the  friendship 
of  many  of  the  great  men  in  the  German  literary  and 
artistic  world.     One  of  these  was  Gottfried 
Keller,  some  of  whose  poems   he   had  set  Keller 

to  music,  and  whom  he  had  met  in  the  fall 
of  1882,  and  greatly  admired. 

The  "Third  Symphony"  (Op.  90),  in  F  major,  was 
performed  at  the  Gewandhaus,  Leipsic,  under  Brahms' 
direction,  and  in  Vienna  during  the  winter 
of  1883,'  and  was  repeated  in  every  musical  "  Third 
centre  in  Germany.  It  consists  of  the  usual  Symphony  " 
four  movements,  and  was  published  in  1884. 
The  Andante  opens  with  a  reminiscence  of  the  Prayer 
from  Zampa,  but  the  similarity  goes  no  further;  the 
Poco  allegretto  is  a  veritable  gem;  the  Finale  has 
been  likened,  not  without  reason,  to  a  battle. 

'  Its  first  Viennese   performance  was  at  a  concert   of  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  December  2,  1883. 



The  published  works  of  1882  and  1883  were: — 
Op.  83,  "  Second  Pianoforte  Concerto "  in  B  flat, 
dedicated  to  Eduard  Marxsen.  Op.  84, 
Concerto,  "  Romances  and  Songs,"  for  One  or  Two 
Songs  a?td  Voices  and  Piano.  No.  4  of  this  series  is 
Trio  the  "  VergebUches  Standchen,"  one  of  the 

most  popular  of  Brahms'  songs.  Op.  85, 
"Six  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano.  Op.  86,  "Six 
Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano.  Op.  87,  "  Trio  in 
C  major,"  for  Piano,  Violin  and  'Cello. 

Op.  88,  "  Quintet  in  F  major,"  for  Two 
"  Quintet"  Violins,  Two  Violas  and  'Cello.  This 
and  "  Quintet "    was  written    during    the  sum- 

"  Gesang  mer  of  1882  at  Ischl,  and  was  performed  in 
der  Par-  England  soon  after  at  a  Henry  Holmes 
zen "  concert.      Op.    89,    "  Gesang   der   Parzen " 

(Song  of  the  Fates),  from  Goethe's  IpAi- 
genia,  dedicated  to  His  Majesty,  George,  Duke  of 

In  1884  Brahms  again  visited  in  Oldenburg,  and  gave 
a  concert,  made  up  entirely  of  his  own  works,  on  De- 
cember 19.  When  the  idea  was  broached 
Brahms  to  him,  he  wrote  in  reply,  "  A  Brahms  even- 
Concert  at  ing  is  not  exactly  to  my  taste,  but  I  like 
Oldenburg  something  like  the  '  Liebeslieder  Waltzes  ' 
in  the  programme.  Perhaps  at  the  close 
you  will  give  a  decent  piece  by  a  decent  musician." 
Hermine  Spiess  came  from  Bremen  to  sing,  and  it  was 
made  quite  a  gala  occasion.     The  programme  included 



the  "  Tragic  Overture,'"  "  B  major  Concerto,"  "  Third 
Symphony,"  "  Liebeslieder  Waltzes "  (which  were  de- 
scribed as  "  the  sweetest  and  most  charming  pieces 
imaginable  "),  and  a  group  of  four  songs. 

This  year  witnessed  the  publication  of  an  unusually 
large   list:    Op.   90,   "Third  Symphony"  in  F   major. 
Op.     91,     "Two    Songs,"    for   Alto,    with 
Viola  obligato,  and  Piano.     Op.  92,  "  Four  Many 

Quartets,"    for   Soprano,    Alto,    Tenor  and  Vocal 

Bass,   with   Piano.     Op.   93A,    "  Songs  and  Works 

Romances,"  for  Four-part  Chorus,  a  capella. 
Op.  93B  (published  January  28,  1885),  "  Tafellied " 
[Dank  der  Damen),  a  drinking  glee,  by  Jos.  von 
Eichendorff,  for  Six-part  Chorus  and  Piano,  dedicated 
to  a  Friend  in  Crefeld.  Op.  94,  "  Five  Songs,"  for  Low 
Voice  and  Piano.  Op.  95,  "Seven  Songs,"  for  One 
Voice  and  Piano. 

The  "  Fourth  Symphony  "  (Op.  98)  in  E  minor,  was 
performed  in  1885  under  the  direction  of  Von  Biilow 
and  Brahms  himself  at  Meiningen.  It  was 
given  from  MS.  at  a  Richter  Concert  in  ^'Fourth 
London  in  May  1886,  then  at  Leipsic  under  Symphony" 
Reinecke,  who  repeated  it  the  next  year 
(1887).  This  symphony  is  of  a  pastoral,  idyllic  char- 
acter, and  consists  of  four  movements,  the  second, 
Andante  moderate,  an  extremely  beautiful  movement  of 
an  elegiac  character.  The  fourth,  a  passacaglia,  con- 
sisting of  an  eight-measure  theme,  repealed  in  varied 
form  throughout  the  movement,   making  in    all  about 



thirty  variations,  was  an  unusual  Finale  for  a  symphony, 
and  attracted  a  great  deal  of  well-merited  attention  to 
the  composition.  It  was  published  in  1886,  along 
with  Op.  96,  "  Four  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano  ; 
and  Op.  97,  "  Six  Songs,"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano. 

The  year  1886  is  important  as  being  that  in  which 
two  honours  were  bestowed   upon    Brahms  —  the  first 

when  the  Emperor  of  Germany  made  him  a 
Honours       Knight   of  the  Order,  pour  la   merite,  foi 

Arts  and  Sciences,  at  the  same  time  with 
Professor  Treitschke,  Gustav  Freitag  and  Verdi ;  the 
second  when  the  Berlin  Academy  of  Arts  elected  him  a 
foreign  member. 

This  was  the  first  of  three  summers  which   Brahms 
spent  at  Thun,   near   Berne.      He  went   in   May  and 

returned  to  Vienna  in  October.  The  at- 
Thu?i  traction  here  was  his  friend  Widmann,  who 

has  left  a  most  interesting  account  of  their 
relations  during  this  time,  from  which  much  that  follows 
is  taken. 

In  order  that   he    might  not  be  disturbed,    Brahms 
rented   the   entire  first  floor  of  a  house,  brown,  with 

green  shutters,  overlooking  the  Aar,  with  a 
Fondness  view  of  the  little  island  promontory  of 
for  Coffee      Scherzlingen   opposite,  where   at    one  time 

the  poet,  Hermann  von  Kleist,  dwelt.  Here 
he  used  to  rise  at  dawn  and  make  a  cup  of  coffee,  the 
mocha   for   which    had   been    abundantly   supplied  by 

Madame  F ,  of  Marseilles,  and  of  which  he  left  a 



goodly  supply  at  the  Widmanns',  that  they  might  enjoy 
his  good  things  with  him,  and  that,  on  his  weekly  visits 
to  them,  he  might  still  have  his  own  favourite  beverage. 
The  morning  hours  were  religiously  devoted  to  work, 
for  which  he  was  always  ready  at  Thun,  where  the  large 
verandah  and  suite  of  spacious  rooms  offered  him  an 
undisturbed  walk  for  meditation.  He  wrote  during  this 
summer  the  "Sonata  for  'Cello  and  Piano"  (Op.  99), 
the  "Sonata  for  Violin  and  Piano"  (Op.  100),  and  the 
"Pianoforte  Trio"  (Op.  loi),  all  of  which  were  first 
performed  at  Widmann's  house  in  Berne.  (The  'Cello 
Sonata  was  taken  up  in  the  fall  by  Hausmann  and 
introduced  at  his  concerts.) 

Every  Saturday  he  would  come  to  Berne,  remaining 
at  Widmann's  until  Tuesday  or  Wednesday.  He  would 
appear  with  a  leathern  satchel  thrown  over 
his  shoulder,  full  of  books  which  he  had  Visits  and 
borrowed,  and  was  returning  to  exchange  Visitors 
for  others.  He  had  frequent  visitors  at 
Thun,  among  them  Professor  G.  Wendt  from  Carlsruhe, 
Max  Kalbeck,  lyric  poet  and  musical  critic,  and  his  old 
and  intimate  friend,  Dr  Edouard  Hanslick,  and  Klaus 
Groth,  the  poet,  and  C.  W.  Allers,  the  artist. 

With  all  his   frequent   visits   to   Berne,  Brahms  ex- 
changed short   letters  with  Widmann  every  week,  but 
rarely  went  into  details.     For  instance,  he 
announced  a  contemplated  visit  as  follows : —         Letters 

"  I  will  not ;    I  ought    not ;    I  may  not ; 
I  cannot — but  I  must  go,"  etc.     Or,  again — 




"Just  decided  to  look  you  up  to-morrow,  Thursday 
afternoon.  If  there  is  no  cake  on  the  table,  it  will  be 
taken  as  a  sign  of  dismissal  by  your  B." 

At  another  time  he  wrote — '■'■  Enclosed  20  francs.  .  .  . 
or  will  you  meantime  accept  it  after  this  fashion,  and 
cash  will  follow  ;  if  necessary,  enforce  payment  by  pawn- 
ing the  travelling  effects"  (which  generally  consisted 
of  brush,  comb  and  tooth-brush)  "  of  the  well-known 
climber  of  the  Jungfrau  and  Niesen,  and  frequenter  of 
the  Schanzli  Theatre."  (He  had  never  ascended  the 
Jungfrau — this  allusion  was  simply  in  jest — but  had 
climbed  the  Niesen.) 

A  temporary  misunderstanding  upon  the  score  of 
patriotism  brought  forth  an  interesting  letter  of  August 
20,  1888,  in  which  Brahm  says,  "If  the 
A  Good  Bayreuth  Theatre  stood  in  France,  it  would 
Word  for  not  take  anything  so  great  as  the  works  of 
Wagner  Wagner  to  make  you  and  all  the  world  go 
on  a  pilgrimage  thither,  and  rouse  your 
enthusiasm  for  something  so  ideally  conceived  and 
executed  as  those  music  dramas." 

In  May  1887  Brahms  went  to  Italy  with  Simrock 
and  Kirchner,  going  to  Thun  upon  his  return.  He  left 
in  September  for  Vienna,  and  was  over- 
The  Dog  joyed  before  leaving  to  see  Widmann's  dog, 
"  Argos  "  "  Argos,"  which  had  had  to  be  abandoned  on 
the  Grindelwald  glacier  a  few  days  before.  In 
his  first  letter  from  Vienna,  he  wrote,  "  How  is  '  Argos '? 
Would  he  take  it  as  a  tender  greeting  from  me  if  you 



were  to  give  him  a  nice  piece  of  meat  instead  of  dog 

The  "Concerto  for  Violin  and  'Cello"  (Op.  102)  was 
played  by  Joachim  and  Hausmann  at  Cologne  in  the 
fall  of  1887  ;  on  New  Year's  Day,  1888,  at 
Leipsic,  with  Brahms  himself  as  Conductor,  Double 

and   at   a    London    Symphony    Concert    in       Concerto 
February  1888.      It  is  a  revival  of  a  form 
which  had  for  a  century  been  neglected,  and  is  in  every 
way  a  remarkable  work. 

The  new  publications  of  this  year  were  : — 

Op.  99,  "Sonata  for  'Cello  and  Piano  "  in  F  major. 
Op.  100,  "  Sonata  for  Violin  and  Piano  "  in  A  major. 
There  is  some  similarity  between  the  first  theme 
of  this  sonata  and  the  "Preislied,"  from  "Die 
Op.   loi,  "Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  'Cello"  in 
C  minor.     The  slow  movement  of  this  trio  is  in 
the  "seven-four"  rhythm. 
May  7,    1888,    Brahms   and  Widmann    started  from 
Verona  on   an   Italian    trip,   through   the    Marches    to 
Umbria,    Rome,    and   back    through    Pied- 
mont.   At  Bologna,  Brahms' mf(?^«zy<?,  which      Martucci 
he   generally  assumed   on  his  Italian  trips, 
proved    unavailing   because  of  the   presence   of  many 
German    musicians    at    the    International    Exposition. 
When  Martucci,  the  Director  of  the  Conservatory  and 
Conductor   of   the  Opera,  heard  of  Brahms'  presence, 
he  at  once  sent  his  card  to  the  hotel,  "Quattro  Pelle- 




grini,"  where  the  travellers  were  sojourning,  and  re- 
quested permission  to  pay  his  respects.  A  meeting  was 
arranged,  and  as  Brahms  did  not  speak  Italian,  though 
he  read  it  with  considerable  fluency,  Widmann  was 
requested  to  act  as  interpreter.  Upon  entering  the 
room,  Martucci  nearly  prostrated  himself  to  the  floor, 
and,  seizing  the  master's  hand,  kissed  it  in  spite  of 
resistance.  He  informed  Brahms  that  he  had  recently 
given  the  "  Second  Symphony  "  at  Naples,  and  showed 
great  familiarity  with  the  latter's  chamber  works,  hum- 
ming themes  and  exhibiting  great  enthusiasm.  Soon 
they  began  conversing  as  best  they  could  without  the 
aid  of  the  interpreter,  and  parted  good  friends. 

The  next  day  the  travellers  passed  through  Rimini 
and  San  Marino,  which  Brahms  facetiously  called  the 

"Postage  Stamp  Republic."  While  they 
Rossini         were   passing   through    Pesaro,   he    insisted 

that,  though  they  couldn't  stop,  they  must 
honour  Rossini's  memory  by  each  singing  some  air  from 
//  Barbiere  as  the  train  rolled  through  the  town. 

The  summer  months  were  again  spent  at  Thun,  where 
everyone  was  stimulated  by  his  active  mind,  for  he  was 

always  in  excellent  spirits,  and  his  themes  of 
Intense  conversation  seemed  inexhaustible.  He  was 
Patriot        an  attentive  newspaper  reader  and  observer 

of  important  political  events,  always  anxious 
about  the  result  upon  the  fortunes  of  Germany.  (He 
was  an  intense  patriot.)  In  the  early  fall  he  and 
Widmann  started  out  on  a  short  journey,  but  were  called 



back  to  meet  Ernst  von  Wildenbruch,  the  playwright, 
with  whom  Brahms  became  very  friendly.  He  left 
Thun  in  September. 

The  year    1889   was    marked  by  two  more  honours 
bestowed  upon  him,  the  first  the  Order  of  St  Leopold, 
from  the  Emperor  of  Austria — the  first  time 
that  this  Order  had  been  bestowed  upon  a  More 

civilian — and  the  second,  in  the  summer —  Honours 
the  honour  which  he  valued  most  highly  of 
all — the  freedom  of  his  native  city,  Hamburg.  In  May 
he  went  to  Ischl  for  the  summer.  In  reality  a  social 
creature,  as  the  years  went  by,  he  felt  ever  more  and 
more  attached  to  the  friends  at  Vienna,  and  it  was  this 
fact  which  infiuenced  him  to  spend  this  and  subsequent 
summers  near  the  city.  There  was  also  this  summer  a 
short  visit  to  Lichtenthal  (Baden-Baden)  —  where  his 
headquarters  were  at  the  "Baren,"  a  comfortable  and 
quiet  inn  in  the  Lichtenthal  AUee — followed  by  a  short 
stay  at  Carlsruhe. 

The  next  Italian  tour  was  in  the  spring  of  1890,  again 
in  company  with  Widmann,  with  whom  he  made  still  a 
third  tour  in  1893.    The  second  journey  was 
not  very  lengthy,  taking  in  only  Northern  Italy        Brahms 
— Parma,  Cremona,  Brescia,  Vicenza,  Padua,  as  a 

and  returning  by  way  of  Verona.     On  board  Nurse 

ship,  returning  from  Messina  to  Naples,  upon 
the  third  trip,  Widmann  was  struck  by  a  piece  of  luggage, 
which  threw  him  down  and  accidentally  dislocated  his 
ankle,  necessitating  his  remaining  in  bed  for  a  few  days. 



This  mishap  brought  out  a  new  side  of  Brahms'  nature, 
when  acting  as  nurse,  he  cared  for  his  friend  in  the 
most  tender  manner.  It  was  after  this  fashion  that  he 
celebrated  his  sixtieth  birthday.  This  was  the  last  of 
these  Italian  journeys,  which  were  the  chief  of  his 

Brahms  was  passionately  fond  of  Italy.  A  spring 
which  brought  no  journey  to  Italy  seemed  to  him  to  be 
half  wasted.  He  felt  an  inner  sympathy 
Reverence  with  the  masters  of  the  Italian  Renaissance, 
for  though  he  never  said  so  in  so  many  words, 

Masters  always  speaking  with  touching  modesty  and 
of  Art  deepest  veneration   of  the  great  heroes  in 

every  field  of  Art.  He  took  special  delight 
in  discovering  evidences  of  the  genius  of  patient  labour, 
which  would  pass  unnoticed  by  the  ordinary  tourist. 
His  interest  in  Art  was  natural  and  spontaneous,  not 
based  upon  any  previous  study  of  the  history  of  Art. 
If  he  did  any  studying,  it  was  after  rather  than  before  he 
made  his  visits  to  the  galleries.  He  did  not  consult  his 
guide-book,  but  walked  rapidly  along,  pausing  before 
any  work  that  particularly  struck  him.  He  did  not  go 
to  Italy  to  hear  music,  although  he  entertained  the 
greatest  respect  for  Verdi,  always  speaking  of  him  in 
enthusiastic  terms.  But  he  never  went  to  the  Opera  in 
Italy,  probably  because  the  performances  began  too 
late ;  he  was  usually  up  before  five  in  the  morning. 

He  loved  the  spontaneity  and  fervour  of  the  Italians, 
considering  it  much  more  desirable  than  the  coldness  of 



his  northern  compatriots.  While  in  Italy  he  took  special 
pains  to  meet  the  natives  half-way  in  the 
matter  of  suavity  and  politeness.  It  is  related  Loved  the 
that  he  was  so  thoughtful  of  others  that,  Italiatis 
upon  arriving  at  a  hotel  to  spend  the  night, 
he  would  at  once,  upon  retiring  to  his  room,  remove  his 
boots  and  place  them  outside  the  door,  so  that  servants 
would  not  have  to  work  late  on  his  account.  In  the 
meantime  he  would  walk  about  in  his  stocking-feet  until 
bedtime,  sometimes  an  hour  or  more.  He  was  so  en- 
amoured with  Italian  life  that  he  would  not  see  its  shady 
side :  the  Italians  in  their  turn  venerated  him. 

During  the   latter  part  of  his  life   Brahms  was  the 
musical  centre  of  Vienna,  and  during  the 
summers     which     he     spent    at     Ischl    he        Musical 
attracted  thither  crowds  of  musicians  from      Centre  of 
all   parts    of  the  world.      It    might   be  in-  Vienna 

teresting  to  know  that  his  favourite  Vien- 
nese restaurant  was  "  Zum  rothen  Igel." 

In   the   early   nineties   appeared    the    following   new 
works — it  is    significant   of  his  vitality  that  he  wrote, 
in    the  last  seven  years  of  his  life,  twenty 
important  compositions,  the  last  appearing  Last 

in  June  1896: —  Works 

Op.    102,   "  Double   Concerto   for  Violin 
and  'Cello"  in  A  minor.     Op.  103,  "Gipsy  Songs,"  for 
Four  Voices  (S.,  A.,  T.,  B.)  and  Piano.     These  songs 
were  written  in  the  style  of  the  Hungarian  gipsy  music, 
and  are  full  of  "go"  and  "swing."     Op.    104,   "Five 




Songs,"  for  Mixed  Voices.  Op.  105,  "Five  Songs,"  for 
One  Voice  and  Piano.  Op.  106,  "Five  Songs,"  for  One 
Voice  and  Piano.  Op.  107,  "  Five  Songs,"  for  One  Voice 
and  Piano.  Op.  108,  "Sonata  for  Piano  and  Violin" 
in  D  minor.  Op.  109,  Three  "Deutsche  Fest- und 
Gedenkspriiche,"  for  Double  Chorus,  a  capella.  Op. 
no,  "Three  Motets,"  for  Four  and  Eight  Voices.  Op. 
Ill,  "String  Quintet,"  No.  2,  in  G  major  (with  an  un- 
usually prominent  part  for  the  Viola).  Op.  112,  "Six 
Gipsy  Songs,"  for  Four  Voices,  a  capella.  Op.  113, 
"  Thirteen  Canons,"  for  Female  Voices  and  Piano.  The 
best  of  these  is  practically  a  transcription,  in  the  canon 
form,  of  Schubert's  song,  "  Der  Leiermann."  Op.  114, 
"  Trio  "  in  A  minor,  for  Piano,  Violin  and  Clarionet  (or 
Alto).  Op.  115,  "Quintet  for  Clarionet  and  Strings" 
in  B  minor.  Op.  116,  "Fantasien,"  for  Pianoforte. 
Op.  117,  "Three  Intermezzi,"  for  Pianoforte.  The  first 
of  these,  a  Slumber  Song,  was  suggested  by  one  of 
Herder's  "Scotch  Ballads,"  and  bears  the  following 
motto : — 

"  Schlaf  sanft,  mein  Kind,  schlaf  sanft  und  schon, 
Mich  dauert's  sehr  dich  weihnen  sehn." 

(Sleep  lightly,  my  child,  sleep  peacefully, 
It  grieves  my  heart  thy  tears  to  see.) 

Op.  118,  "Six  Piano  Pieces."  Op.  119,  "Four  Piano 
Pieces."  Op.  120,  "Two  Sonatas,"  for  Clarionet  (or 
Alto)  and  Piano ;  No.  i  in  F  minor,  No.  2  in  E  flat. 
Op.  121,  "Four  Serious  Songs"  (Words  from  the 



The  last  Italian  journey  (in  1893)  was  rather  hastily 
planned   when    Brahms    heard    of    preparations   for   a 
public  celebration  of  his  sixtieth  birthday, 
and  the  party  numbered  four — two  friends,       The  Last 
Hegar     and     Freund,    accompanying    him  Italian 

and  Widmann.      They  visited,   besides  the        Journey 
places    before    mentioned,    Milan,    Naples, 
Sorrento   and   Sicily,    paying   a   visit   to   the   grave   of 
Von  Platen,  the  poet. 

Brahms'  last  great  choral  work  was  the  "  Deutsche 
Fest-  und  Gedenkspriiche,"  which  was  first  given  at  an 
Industrial    Exhibition    in    Hamburg,    Sep- 
tember 1889,  and  then  at  Berne  Cathedral   '' Fest- und 
at   a   festival     commemorating    the    seven        Gedenk- 
hundredth  anniversary  of  the  city.     Brahms       spriiche  " 
was  invited  to  come  from  Ischl  to  conduct 
the  performance,  but  declined,  as  he  did  not  wish  to 
make  the  long  journey.     The  composition  is  patriotic 
in    character,    and    consists    of   three    large    numbers 
for  Double   Chorus    without   solo   or  accompaniment. 
The  first,  "  Our  fathers  trusted  in  Thee,"  refers  to  the 
Battle   of  Leipsic   (18 13),    in    which    the    Fatherland 
regained  its  liberty.     The  second  refers  to  the  collapse 
of  the  French  in  the  Franco-Prussian  War  at  the  Battle 
of  Sedan  (187 1).     The  third  praises  the  splendour  of 
the  new  united  Empire.     The  work  is  deeply  religious 

From    189 1    to    1893   Brahms    was   much   at   Mein 
ingen,  where  he  was  on  terms  of  warm  friendship  with 
F  81 



the  Duke  and  Duchess.    He  was  always  a  welcome  guest 
at  their  Court,  and  often  went  there  for  per- 
Meiningen   formances  of  his  new  compositions  under  the 
and  direction  of  Steinbach.     He  also  delighted 

Miihlfeld  in  the  playing  of  Miihlfeld,  the  clarionetist, 
which  will  explain  the  great  prominence 
given  to  the  clarionet  in  the  works  of  this  period. 
Miihlfeld  was  a  superlative  artist  who  did  much  to 
make  the  clarionet  works  successful.  Brahms  insisted 
upon  his  being  engaged  to  introduce  them  in  England, 
where  he  won  great  renown  both  for  himself  and  the 

Despite  his  dislike   of  display,  Brahms  enjoyed  ap- 
pearing here  in  the  full  splendour  of  his  many  orders. 
As  an  evidence  of  the  high  esteem  in  which 
Royal  he  was  held  by  the  Duchess,  she  sent  him  a 

Friends  pair  of  slippers  embroidered  by  her  own 
hands,  and,  knowing  his  dislike  of  letter- 
writing,  and  that  his  health  was  poor,  she  enclosed  a 
post-card,  all  filled  out,  so  that  all  he  need  do,  to 
acknowledge  receipt  of  the  gift,  was  to  sign  and 
return  it. 

In  the  fall  of  1895,  at  the  opening  of  the  new  Ton- 
halle  at  Zurich,  Brahms  conducted  the  "  Triumphlied," 
several  of  his  concerted  works  and    songs 
Last  Swiss  being   also    given.      Joachim,     Hausmann, 
Trip  Hegar   and    several  others   assisted  in  the 

performance.     He  was  then  still  in  perfect 
health,    and    spent    the    evening   at    the    house   of  a 



wealthy  music-lover,  laughing  and  joking  with  the 
young  daughters  of  his  host,  and  remaining  until 
after  midnight.  Again,  in  March  1896,  he  planned  an 
Italian  trip,  but  was  unable  to  carry  it  through. 

On  May  20,  1896,  came  what  proved  to  be  Brahms' 
death-blow — Madame  Schumann  passed  away.  When 
he  received  the  news  he  hastened  at  once  to 
Frankfort  to  be  present  at  the  funeral,  and  Mada?ne 
it  was  to  "a  fit  of  anger"  at  missing  his  Schumanti's 
train — he  would  not  admit   that   he  ever  Death 

became  excited  —  that  he  attributed  the 
illness  which  eventually  proved  fatal.  This  was  an 
affection  of  the  liver,  from  which  his  father  had  also 
died.  Undoubtedly  the  shock  of  Madame  Schumann's 
death  had  much  to  do  both  with  bringing  it  on  and 
with  its  fatal  issue.  Within  a  few  weeks  of  his  death  he 
was  assured  by  his  physician  that  he  might  live  many 
years,  if  only  he  would  will  to  do  so. 

Brahms  at  first  made  light  of  his  illness,  calling  it 
"only  a  commonplace  jaundice";  but  as  the  disease 
became  more  serious,  he  requested  of  his 
physician  and  attendants,  "On  no  account  tell  "  Only  a 
me  anything  unpleasant  " ;  so  that  the  hope-  Commoft- 
lessness  of  his  condition  was  kept  from  him,  place 

and  he  probably  never  knew  until  the  end    Jaundice  " 
that  he  could  not  recover ;  in  fact,  he  had 
planned  to  spend  the  summer  of  1897  at  Carlsbad.     In 
a  letter  of  October  1896  he  was  still  as  cheerful  as  ever, 
and   the   last    letter    he   ever   wrote    to    Widmann    (in 



December    1896)    showed  no  diminution  in   his   good 

Though  suffering,  he  took  his  daily  walks  almost  to 
the  last,  and  less  than  a  month  before  his  death  he 
attended  a  concert  of  the  Philharmonic 
Last  Public  Society.  The  programme  began  with  the 
Appearance  "  Fourth  Symphony,"  and  at  the  end  of  the 
first  movement  every  eye  was  turned  toward 
the  director's  box,  where  Brahms  was  seated.  A  storm  of 
applause  swept  the  audience,  which  was  only  quieted 
when  he  arose  and  bowed  his  acknowledgments.  Each 
successive  movement  was  greeted  with  the  same  en- 
thusiasm. The  entire  assemblage  was  affected  at  sight 
of  the  master's  altered  face  and  figure,  and  his  evident 
ignorance  of  the  seriousness  of  his  condition.  Many  felt 
that  they  were  greeting  him  for  the  last  time,  which 
indeed  proved  to  be  the  case. 

Herr  Conrat  tells  us  that  during  the  last  winter  of  his 
life  Brahms  left  the  house  but  seldom,  and  on  the  occa- 
sion of  their  last  meeting,  on  March  25,  1897 
Failing         (only  ten  days  before  his  death),  he  strove  to 
Health  do  the  honours    as  usual,   with  great  diffi- 

culty bringing  forth  the  "  renowned  Brahms 
cigarettes  "  (very  large  and  strong)  from  another  room, 
and  attempting  to  carry  on  a  conversation.  But  the 
exertion  had  been  too  great :  his  head  sank  upon  his 
breast,  and  he  murmured,  "There  must  be  something 
in  this"  (meaning  his  illness).  He  was  unable  to 
resume  the  conversation,  so  Conrat  quietly  left  after  a 



few  minutes  without  disturbing  him,  and  for  the  first 
time  in  their  acquaintance  of  ten  years  Brahms  was 
unable  to  see  him  to  the  door. 

His  death  occurred  at  Vienna  early  in  the  morning  of 
Saturday,  April  3,  1897.     His  last  words,  spoken  a  few 
hours  before  he  died,  to  the  nurse  who  had 
given  him  a  drink,  were,    "  I  thank  you."  Death 

His  body  was  interred  in  a  suburb  of  Vienna, 
in   the    Centralfriedhof,    near   the   remains  of  Mozart, 
Beethoven  and  Schubert. 

Up  to  the  middle  of  his  career  it  does  not  appear  that 
his  publications  paid  him  very  liberally.  Concerning  the 
"  German  Requiem,"  he  said,  "Just  look  at 
the  score  of  the  '  Requiem,'  and  you  will  see  His  Estate 
all  the  possible  and  impossible  sizes  of  paper. 
At  that  time  I  never  had  enough  money  to  buy  a  large 
quantity  of  paper;  but  now  I  have  it  a-plenty."  In 
the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  must  have  fared  better  than 
his  great  predecessors  in  the  Austrian  capital,  for  he  left 
a  matter  of  80,000  dollars  in  the  bank,  besides  other 
valuable  effects. 

He  died  intestate :  he  had  occasionally,  in  his  later 
years,  spoken  of  making  a  will,  but  looked  upon  that 
formality  as  an  acknowledgment  of  old  age 
His  Heirs  and  the  approach  of  death,  neither  of  which 
seemed  imminent ;  for,  up  to  the  time  of 
his  last  illness,  he  was  the  picture  of  robust  health.  It 
had   been  his  wish  to  remember  the  Gesellschaft  der 



Musikfreunde,  but  as  a  result  of  the  litigation  which  fol- 
lowed his  death,  it  turned  out  that  the  Gesellschaft  got 
only  his  books,  autographs  and  musical  manuscripts, 
while  the  bulk  of  his  estate  went  to  distant  relatives 
(whom  he  heartily  disliked). 

A  statue  to  Brahms  was  unveiled  in  December  1899 

at  Meiningen,  Dr  Joachim  making  an  ad- 

Statue  aiid  dress  ;  and  his  house    at   Gmlinden,  Salz- 

Museum       kammergut,  has  been  opened  as  a  Brahms 

Museum,  the  doors  and  windows  having  been 

taken  from  the  house  in  which  he  had  lived  at  Ischl. 


Brahms  :  The  Man 

Physically,  Brahms  was  a   fine  specimen  of  a  man. 

"A  stocky,  compact  figure— not  exactly  elegantly  attired 

— with  ruddy   complexion  indicating  good 

health,  slightly  grey  beard,  walking  with  his        Appear- 

hands  folded  behind  his  back."     His  head       ance  and 

was  perhaps  a  trifle  too  large  for  his  body,          Health 

while  his  eyes  were  penetrating  and  full  of 

fire  and  nobility  of  expression.     His  love  of  nature  kept 

him   much   out  of  doors,   especially   as  his   physician 

advised  walking  to  counteract  his  increase  in  weight 

after  middle  life. 

In   the   city   he   rarely   omitted   his    daily   walk    on 
the     Prater,     the     favourite     promenade     of    Vienna, 
and  even  in  late  life  Hanslick  said,  "  He 
makes     foot     tours    like     a     student    and       Walking 
sleeps  like  a  child."     When  in  the  country  and 

he  was  fond  of  climbing  mountains.    Alpine    Mountain 
summits  and  glaciers   had  great  attraction       Climbing 
for   him,   also   the    welcome   he    was    sure 
to  find  at  Basel  and  Zurich,  which  accounted  for  his 
frequent  trips  to  Switzerland.     His  tendency  to  corpu- 



lency  made  the  ascent  somewhat  difficult,  but  his  down- 
hill pace  was  a  merry  one.  "  It  was  comical  to  see," 
says  Conrat,  "when  we  did  any  climbing  in  our  trips 
that  he  did  not  want  to  admit  that  it  caused  him  any 
inconvenience.  'Well,  Conrat,  now  stop  and  take  a 
look  at  this  view,'  he  would  say.  I  would  take  the  hint, 
being  well  repaid  in  seeing  how  glad  he  was  to  gain  a 
little  rest." 

His  appetite  was  vigorous,  and  he  loved  to  sit  with  his 
friends  in  the  Kneipe  (restaurant)  sipping  his  beer  and 
wine  or  Kaffee,  often  until  the  small  hours 
Appetite  of  the  morning.  When  the  weather  per- 
and  mitted,  he  always  dined  in  the  garden  of 

Unconven-  some  restaurant,  avoiding  the  table  d'hote, 
tionality  because  it  demanded  a  more  conventional 
garb  than  he  was  accustomed  to  wear.  (He 
was  most  at  ease  in  summer-time  in  flannel  shirt,  with- 
out tie  or  stiff  collar ;  add  to  this  the  fact  that  he  gener- 
ally carried  his  broad-brimmed  soft  hat  in  his  hand 
rather  than  on  his  head,  and  it  is  evident  what  a  striking 
figure  he  made.)  He  never  visited  England  although 
often  pressed  to  do  so,  because  he  was  not  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  language  and,  because,  as  he  said, 
"One  has  almost  to  live  in  a  dress  suit  and  white  tie." 
In  bad  weather  he  frequently  wore  a  brownish-grey 
shawl  thrown  around  his  shoulders  and  fastened  in  front 
with  a  huge  pin. 

No  one  could  come  near  Brahms  without  feeling  a 
sense  of  his  power.     "  His  was  one  of  the  strongest 


The   Man 

personalities   in   the  whole  line  of  Masters  of  Music" 
(Maitland).      Those    who   met  him  for  the 
first   time    were    invariably    struck   by    the      Fower/ul 
kindliness  of  his  eyes — light  blue,  wonder-         Person- 
fully  keen  and  bright,  with  now  and  then  a  ality 

roguish  twinkle  and  yet  sometimes  an  almost 
childlike  tenderness.  This  roguishness  in  his  eyes 
correspontied  to  a  quality  of  his  mind — no  doubt  in- 
herited from  his  father,  who  had  a  keen  sense  of  humour 
— good-natured  sarcasm,  and  remarkable  rapidity  at  re- 
partee. A  great  controversalist,  he  much  preferred  a 
conflict  of  opinions  rather  than  that  people  out  of 
respect  for  his  powers  and  achievements  should  always 
agree  with  him. 

A  pedantic  musician  from  a  very  small  Swiss  town 
assured  him  that  he  knew  all  that  he  (Brahms)  had  ever 
written.     Brahms  motioned  for  silence,  re- 
marking that  the  band  was  just  then  playing      A  Gungl 
something  of  his.    The  man  listened,  gaping  March 

and  with  upturned  eyes  (it  was  a  march  by 
Gungl),  while  Brahms  turned  to  the  rest  of  the  party  and 
whispered  in  great  glee,  "  Well  fooled  !  " 

Another  musician  introduced  himself  to  Brahms,  and 
to  make  conversation  asked  if  he  did  not  wear  spectacles 
when  conducting.  (He  was  very  near-sighted 
in  middle  life  and  very  sensitive  about  it.  Spectacles 
He  used  to  say  he  escaped  seeing  many 
unpleasant  things  when  in  the  street  without  his  glasses, 
and  that  for  him  there  were  more  beautiful  women  than 


for  those  whose  keener  sight  destroyed  the  illusions.) 
Quick  as  a  flash  he  replied — alluding  to  Schumann's 
"Faust,"  which  had  just  been  performed, — "Yes,  my 
good  fellow.  Of  course  I  put  on  my  glasses  whenever 
I  see  written  on  the  score,  '  Here  women  pass  by.'" 

Brahms  declared  that  he  had  had  as  a  boy  a  beautiful 
soprano  voice,  but  had  spoiled  it  by  too  much  singing 

while  it  was  changing.  In  middle  life  his 
As  a  voice  was  "  rough  and  almost  cracked."     At 

Singer  a    "  Billroth    Evening "    of    the   Academic 

and  Critic    Society    of    Vienna   (whose   decoration   he 

had  received),  he  was  an  honoured  guest 
and  joined  in  singing  all  the  student  songs,  which  he 
had  known  and  loved  as  a  young  man,  as  loudly  as  his 
"rough  and  almost  cracked  "  voice  would  permit.  He 
frequently  attended  the  Sunday  musicales  of  his  friend, 
Professor  Gausbacher,  and  would  sometimes  accompany 
one  or  two  of  the  young  girl  pupils,  but  was  always  full 
of  caustic  witticisms  which  were  likely  to  disconcert  the 
singers.  Aware  of  this,  he  said  to  Heuberger  who  wanted 
to  show  him  some  of  his  compositions,  "  I  should  be 
much  interested  to  see  them,  but  you  mustn't  be  sensi- 
tive at  what  I  say  about  them." 

Among  his  friends  Brahms  was  of  a  genial,   social 

disposition,  full  of  kindness,  loving  com- 
A  Genial  panionship,  and  at  heart  a  true  gentleman. 
Friend  He  was  at  his  best   in  the  small  circle  of 

his  intimate  friends,  witty,  full  of  fun,  good 
company,  of  a  kind-hearted   and  generous  disposition. 


The  Man 

On  week  days  he  was  generally  seen  alone,  but  on 
Sundays  he  was  usually  accompanied  on  his  pedestrian 
trips  by  a  number  of  friends.  On  these  occasions  he 
was  always  in  very  good  humour.  He  felt  very  much 
at  home  in  Vienna,  finding  there  many  warm  friends, 
but  had  a  deep-seated  hatred  for  everything  French,  and 
had  never  been  in  Paris. 

A  man  of  strong  personality,  oblivious  to  criticism  or 
censure,  unmindful  even  of  the  praise  of  friends,  he  was 
eminently  capable  of  carrying  out  his  plans 
to  their  ultimate  conclusions  and  awaiting       Indiffer- 
results,  striving  ever  without  digression  for  ent  to 

his  ideal.  He  created  to  the  best  of  his  Criticism 
ability,  then  let  his  creations  stand  or  fall 
on  their  own  merits,  unmindful  of  the  reception  ac- 
corded them.  Even  in  his  early  days  his  simplicity, 
absolute  straightforwardness,  sincerity  and  calm  self- 
reliance  enabled  him  to  meet  triumphantly  the  coolness 
and  indifference  that  for  years  were  his  lot.  He  was 
always  intensely  interested  in  his  new  works  until  they 
had  been  publicly  performed;  then  he  laid  them  aside, 
and  it  was  almost  impossible  to  get  him  even  to  mention 
them.  For  the  opinions  of  outsiders  he  had  the  pro- 
foundest  contempt,  and  was  completely  indifferent  to 
journalistic  verdicts. 

In  his  later  years  a  brusqueness,  which  characterised 
him  as  a  young  man,  wore  off,  and  his  manner  became 
milder;  even  the  sharp,  stinging  sarcasm,  which  his 
enemies  knew   so   well,  became  a   thing   of  the   past. 



His  sturdy  manliness   was  probably  more  or  less   an 

inherited  trait,  for  it  is  related  that  once 
His  when  the  conductor  directed  Brahms'  father 

Father's  not  to  play  so  loudly  he  replied  with  dignity, 
Brusque-  "  Herr  Capellmeister,  this  is  my  contrabass, 
ness  I  want  you  to  understand,  and  I  shall  play 

on  it  as  loud  as  I  please." 
Brahms  had  a  deep-rooted  dislike  of  all  display  of 
solemnity,  a  shyness  of  betraying  his  deepest  feelings, 

that  made  him  hide  the  inner  workings  of 
Disliked  his  heart  under  a  mask  of  irony,  sarcasm 
Emotional  and  seeming  indifference.  The  illness  and 
Display        subsequent  death  of  his  most  intimate  friend, 

Dr  Billroth,  the  eminent  surgeon,  deeply 
affected  him  ;  yet,  when  he  was  buried  and  the  company 
standing  about  were  visibly  much  moved,  Brahms  was 
walking  with  a  friend  in  another  part  of  the  cemetery, 
conversing  about  some  unimportant  topic  lest  he  should 
give  way  to  his  feelings.  Self-importance  especially  be- 
tween fellow-artists  disgusted  him,  and  when  obliged 
to  endure  it  he  could  be  blunt  almost  to  unkind- 

On  his  first  visit  to  Goetz  at  Winterthur  he  saw  some 
freshly-written  sheets  of  manuscript  lying  on  Goetz's  desk. 

Brahms  stepped  forward  to  look  at  it,  saying, 
Goetz's  "  Ah  !  Do  you  also  sometimes  amuse  your- 
"  Treasure''  self  with  such  things?"     (It  was  a  piece  of 

chamber  music.)  Goetz  quickly  spread  his 
hands  over  the  manuscript  and  said,  in  solemn  tones, 



OU^   ^-^    Vl^       iL4^       /r^^L^ 



^  " 

^/^  7y/^" 


To  face  pa^e  92 

The  Man 

"  It  is  my  most  sacred  treasure."  Brahms  turned  im- 
patiently away,  changed  the  conversation,  and  soon  after 
took  his  leave.  Each  afterward  found  something  blame- 
worthy in  the  conduct  of  the  other,  but  the  occurrence 
was  really  the  result  simply  of  incompatibility  of  char- 
acter and  aim.  They  afterward  became  more  or  less 
friendly,  but  never  really  intimate. 

One  day  a  Viennese  composer,  whose  opera  had  been 
accepted  in  spite  of  its  triviality,  asked  Brahms  why  he 
had  never  composed  an  opera.  Brahms 
answered  quietly,  "  The  reason  is  very  simple.  Music  for 
I  believe  that  to  be  able  to  write  for  the  the  Theatre 
theatre  one  must  possess  a  measure  of 
stupidity.     I  feel  that  I  lack  the  requisite  amount." 

Even  after  his  compositions  had  begun  to  be  generally 
accepted,  personal  enmity  and  opposition  followed  him 
everywhere,  so  that  it  is  not  surprising  that 
he  should  have  won  the  reputation  in  certain  So7ne 

quarters  of  being  reserved  and  brusque,  and  Bright 

that  his  sharp  wit  made  him  feared.  He  Criticisms 
was  the  butt  of  many  jokes,  which  he  often 
answered  in  kind.  Nietzsche,  the  philosopher,  said  of 
him,  "  Brahms  is  never  more  touching  than  when  he 
sings  of  his  own  impotence."  Old  Hellmesberger,  who 
was  very  anxious  to  shine  as  a  wit,  said,  "  A  symphony 
of  Brahms  is  like  a  soldier  who  presents  himself  before 
his  lieutenant  with  the  words,  '  It  is  my  duty  to  report, 
lieutenant,  that  I  have  nothing  to  report.'" 

On  the  other  hand,  Brahms  took  a  rather  peculiar 


revenge  on  Rubinstein,  who  never  played  any  of  his 
(Brahms')  compositions  in  concert.     They 
Brahms        often  conversed  upon  many  musical  subjects, 
a7id  but  never  in  any  way  did  Brahms  say  a  word 

Rubinstein  which  might  lead  anyone  to  think  that 
Rubinstein  had  ever  given  a  concert.  After 
the  performance  of  Rubinstein's  "Nero"  a  number  of 
musicians  were  picking  it  to  pieces.  Brahms  Ustened 
quietly  for  a  while,  then,  shaking  his  head,  said,  "The 
character  of  '  Nero  '  had  been  well  comprehended  "  (by 
Rubinstein).     "  It  was  horrible  music." 

His  hatred  of  "kapellmeister  music  "  was  as  strong  as 

Wagner's.    One  composer  played  Brahms  a  composition, 

which  has  since  been  well  received,  and  the 

Unfortim-    sole  comment  he  received  was,  "What  beau 

ate  tiful  music  paper  you  use  !     Pray,  where  do 

Composers    you  get  it  ?  "     Another  composer,  who  had 

made  a  setting  of  Schiller's  "  Lay  of  the  Bell," 

upon  playing  it  for  Brahms,  was  told,  "  Yes,  I  have  always 

thought  this  '  Glocke '  of  Schiller's  one  of  the  greatest 

poems  ever  written,  and  I  shall  continue  to  hold  that 

opinion."     When  told  that  a  monument  was 

Raff  to  be  erected  to  Raff,  he  said,  "  A  monument 

to  Raff?     Dear  me !     Well,  you  had  better 

be  quick  about  it,  lest  he  should  be  forgotten  before  you 

have  got  it  ready." 

Brahms  was  sane  on  all  subjects.  He  not  only  had 
clear  ideas  and  firm  principles  in  all  concerning  art 
and  literature,  but  in  other  fields  he  showed  clear  in- 


The   Man 

sight  and  keen  discrimination.  An  attentive  observer 
of  current  events,  he  took  an  active  interest 
in  all  the  phenomena  of  life,  natural,  artistic,  His  Broad 
and  even  industrial.  He  was  interested  in  Sympathies 
mechanics  and  farming,  called  birds  by  their 
names,  imitated  their  notes  and  knew  their  habits. 
Every  new  and  useful  thing  gave  him  pleasure,  but 
for  the  unpractical  he  had  no  sympathy.  Disliking  the 
bicycle,  he  had  yet  the  highest  admiration  for  the 
progress  of  modern  civilisation,  which  has  given  us 
the  electric  light,  the  telephone,  the  phonograph  and 
kindred  inventions.  Nature  and  all  concerning  the 
animal  world  deeply  interested  him.  Henschel  relates 
that  when  walking  along  the  road  one  day  Brahms 
called  out  excitedly,  "  Look  out !  look  out !  You  may 
kill  it."     It  was  a  tumble-bug  ! 

His  themes  of  conversation  seemed  inexhaustible. 
He  was  a  voluminous  reader  on  all  subjects,  his  tastes 
running  to  history  and  the  standard  authors 
rather  than  to  novelties,  and  he  liked  to  Profound 
go  back  time  and  time  again  to  favourite  Scholarship 
books  and  scenes.  He  greatly  admired  and 
respected  most  of  the  contemporary  literary  and  artistic 
masters  of  his  country,  with  many  of  whom  he  was  per- 
sonally acquainted. 

With  Brahms  politeness  and  even  kindliness  did  not 
cease  with  a  certain  rank  or  class,  but  only  where,  irre- 
spective of  either,  he  thought  he  detected  some  in- 
sincerity.     It  was  his  habit  to  think  well  of  everyone 




if  he  thought  of  him  at  all.     He  revelled  in  the  sunshine, 

both  physically  and  morally.  In  a  letter  to 
Kindliness  Widmann  he  sent  greetings  to  the  family, 
to  Servants  naming  especially  the  servant.     He  would 

sometimes  turn  his  back  on  some  "  grande 
dame"  and  turn  to  the  waiting-maid  to  address  a 
friendly  word  to  her.  He  spoke  to  Henschel  with 
emotion  of  a  serving-maid  who  had  lost  her  position 
in  order  to  shield  a  careless  postman  who,  being 
married,  could  not  afford  to  lose  his. 

Naturally  modest  and  unassuming,  he  was  ever 
happiest  amid   simple  surroundings,   himself  living,  in 

the  main,  a  life  of  Spartan  simplicity ;  full 
Modest  and  o^  tact,  always  pleasant  and  in  excellent 
Tactful         spirits,   he  was  greatly  beloved  by  all  who 

knew  him  well.  He  could  not  flatter,  and 
was  not  himself  susceptible  to  flattery,  nor  was  he  lavish 
with  praise.  Deeply  religious  in  an  inexpressive  way, 
he  was  in  faith  a  liberal  Protestant,  but  was  ever  careful 
not  to  wound  the  sensibilities  of  those  with  whom  he 
came  in  contact. 

That  Brahms  had  his  human  weaknesses  is  evident 
from  the  following  excerpt  from  the  Countess  Potocka's 
Theodor  Leschetizky : — 

"The  Tonkunstlerverein  .  .  .  originated  in  1881  in 
weekly  meetings  for  the  bringing  together  of  artists  and 
the  production  and  discussion  of  new  works.  Latterly 
the  society  has  devoted  itself  very  largely  to  the  works 
of  Brahms,  during  his  life  always  the  greatest  among  us 


The   Man 

at  the  TonkUnstlerverein.     Many  times  Brahms  would 
join  us  when,  as  was   customary,  after  the 
music,   we  repaired  to  a   neighbouring   re-      The  Ton- 
staurant,  forming  into  groups  at  the  small      kiinstler- 
tables  to  discuss  the  evening's  events.     He       verein 
was    grave    and    rather   ponderous    in    his 
manner.     His   voice   was  low,    solemn,    a  little  husky, 
but  what  he  said  was  not  devoid  of  wit  and  fun,  and 
he  had  a  very  kind  smile.     No  one  is  without  a  vul- 
nerable point.     Brahms'  weakness  was  his  decorations  ; 
he  was  vain  of  them,  and  liked  to  have  them  spoken 

Disliking  all  celebrations  of  public  character,  he  was 
ever  happy  in  any  unexpected  homage,  being  much 
gratified  to  find  himself  recognised  and  re- 
spectfully greeted  wherever  he  chanced  to  Gipsy 
go.  The  numerous  gardens  in  Vienna,  Bands 
where  gipsy  bands  played,  especially  at- 
tracted him,  and  it  was  delightful  to  see  the  increased 
spirit  which  they  put  into  their  music  in  the  presence  of 
the  master  who  had  done  so  much  toward  opening  their 
beloved  tunes  to  a  wider  sphere  of  popularity.  In 
Italy  he  often  fell  in  with  gipsy  bands,  and  always 
stopped  to  listen,  and  applauded  lustily.  Upon  one 
occasion  the  leader  recognised  him,  and  instantly 
rapping  for  silence,  passed  the  whispered  word,  and 
the  band  struck  up  one  of  Brahms'  pieces,  much  to 
the  latter's  delight. 

Brahms  hated  to  h&feied  or  made  much  of,  avoiding, 
G  97 


if  possible,  all  public  demonstrations,  and  sometimes 
even  those  privately  arranged  by  his  friends. 
Sixtieth  When  he  heard  that  festivities  were  being 
Birthday  arranged  for  his  sixtieth  birthday  he  packed 
Celebration  up  his  bag  and  hurried  off  to  Italy.  How- 
ever, a  gold  medal  was  struck  and  presented 
to  him  upon  his  return.  He  thanked  the  deputation  as 
follows  :  "  I  really  feel  more  ashamed  of  myself  than 
overjoyed  at  this  great  honour  which  has  been  shown 
me.  Thirty  years  ago  it  would  have  made  me  happy, 
and  I  would  have  felt  it  my  duty  to  make  myself 
worthy  of  such  distinction,  but  now — it  is  too  late." 
He  also  received  many  telegrams  of  congratulation 
upon  this  occasion — one  from  the  Duke  of  Meiningen, 
which  pleased  him  greatly.  That  he  was  not,  however, 
entirely  unmindful  of  his  abilities  is  proven  by  the  follow- 
ing remark  made  one  day  half  in  jest,  have  in  earnest : 
"  How  they  all  come  with  music  under  their  arms 
and  desire  to  play  their  compositions  for  me.  Poor 
music  I  do  not  care  to  hear,  and  if  I  wish  to  hear  good 
music — I  can  compose  that  myself." 

"At  no  time  has  his  manner  to  strangers  or  mere 
acquaintances  been  remarkable  for  urbanity;  but,  on 
the  slightest  suspicion  of  expressed  admira- 
''  Lion-  tion,  he  assumes  a  stony,  or,  rather,  thorny 
hunter"  impenetrability"  (Maitland).  It  is  related 
that  at  Baden-Baden  he  was  approached  by 
a  "  lion-hunter  "  as  he  lay  under  a  tree  in  a  garden.  A 
little  speech,  evidently  prepared  beforehand  and  over- 

The  Man 

loaded  with  flattery,  was  interrupted  by  Brahms,  who 
said,  "  Stop,  my  dear  sir.  There  must  be  some  mistake 
here.  I  have  no  doubt  you  are  looking  for  my  brother, 
the  composer.  I'm  sorry  to  say  he  has  just  gone  out 
for  a  walk,  but  if  you  make  haste  and  run  along  that 
path,  through  the  wood,  and  up  yonder  hill,  you  may 
probably  still  catch  him." 

A  typical  incident  is  related  of  him  during  his  short 
stay  at  Gratz.  A  concert  of  church  music  was  to  be 
given  by  the  Gratz  Choral  Society,  and 
Brahms  came  to  the  last  rehearsal.  The  Incident 
drilling  took  place  in  the  choir  of  the  at  Gratz 
church  late  in  the  afternoon.  The  con- 
ductor began  Bach's  "  Trauer  Ode,"  when  Brahms  arose 
unnoticed,  and,  standing  on  the  left  near  the  organist, 
began  to  read  the  organ  score,  and  somewhat  casually 
turned  over  the  leaves.  Gradually  it  grew  darker  and 
darker,  until  the  organist  could  no  longer  see  the  notes. 
Without  a  word  Brahms  took  a  piece  of  candle  from  his 
coat  pocket,  lighted  it,  and  held  it  so  as  to  help  out  the 
astonished  organist  to  the  end  of  the  rehearsal. 

One  writer,  in  summing  up,  says :  "  To  Brahms  was 
given  Homeric  simplicity,  the  primeval  health  of  the 
well-balanced    mind.      He    excels    all    his 
contemporaries    in    soundness    and   univer-      Summing 
sality,     frankness,     modesty,     simple     and  up 

homely   virtue    combined   with    the   widest 
sympathy,     most    far  -  reaching     intelligence,    extreme 
catholicity  and  tolerance." 



Letter  -  writing   was   ever   burdensome   to   him  ;   the 
post  card  was  his  favourite  sheet  (!).     In  this  connec- 
tion the  following  anecdote  is  apropos :  An 
Letter-  English    publisher   once,    in   an   interview, 

writing  suggested  to  Brahms  the  advantage  of 
having  his  music  published  simultaneously 
in  England  and  Germany,  especially  as  in  England 
there  had  grown  up  a  considerable  Brahms  cult. 
Brahms  admitted  the  advisability  of  the  project,  but 
declined  to  go  into  it,  because  he  would  then  have  to 
write  two  letters  instead  of  one  for  each  work  issued. 
This  interview  took  place  in  Hamburg,  where  he  was 
temporarily  sojourning.  To  show  that  there  was  no 
hard  feeling  on  his  part,  Brahms  was  very  cordial  to 
the  Englishman  and  his  companion,  taking  them  all 
over  the  city  to  see  the  sights,  and  insisting  upon 
paying  all  the  bills  himself. 

This  English  anecdote  leads  naturally  to  another.    In 
1887  Brahms  was  invited  to  write  a  new  work  for  the 
Leeds  Festival.      His  reply  was  character- 
Leeds  istic :    "Should  you  deem   one  of  my  old 

Festival  works  worthy  of  the  honour  of  being  per- 
formed on  this  occasion,  it  would  be  a 
great  pleasure  to  me.  But  if  this  is,  as  it  appears,  not 
the  case,  how  may  I  hope  that  I  shall  succeed  this  time. 
If,  however,  the  charm  of  novelty  be  an  absolute  neces- 
sity, then  pardon  me  if  I  confess  that  I  fail  properly 
to  appreciate,  or  have  no  sympathy  with  such  a  dis- 


The  Man 

Naturally  Brahms  received  many  visits  from  conduc- 
tors, young  composers,  lady  pianists,  and  the  like.  By 
years  of  experience  he  had  acquired  the  art  of 
turning  them  away  without  letting  them  touch  Autograph 
the  piano.  Autograph  hunters  were  another  Hunters 
source  of  annoyance,  but  they  seldom  out- 
witted him.  One  German  lady  at  Cape  Town,  South 
Africa,  year  after  year,  with  the  greatest  perseverance, 
wrote  Brahms  ordering  "  one  of  your  far-famed  Viennese 
pianofortes,"  but  never  received  a  reply.  On  one  occa- 
sion an  especially  crafty  fellow  sent  Brahms  a  telegram 
as  follows :  "  Your  order  for  ten  dozen  rapiers,  genuine 
Solingen  make,  will  be  despatched  in  a  day  or  two.  We 
take  the  liberty  of  obtaining  payment  through  the  post- 
office."  Brahms  stuck  the  message  in  his  pocket  and 
waited  for  the  rapiers.    Needless  to  say,  they  never  came. 

He  was  devoted  to  children — a  child  himself  when 
with  them.      One  evening  while  visiting  at  Berne  he 
lifted  Widmann's  little  five-year  daughter  on 
his  back  and  trotted  her  merrily  all  through      Devotion 
the  city,  not  in  the  least  disturbed  by  the  to 

wondering  looks  of  the  passers-by.  A  young  Children 
American  lady,  travelling  in  Europe  in  1895, 
wrote  home :  "  We  saw  Johannes  Brahms  on  the  hotel 
verandah  at  Domodossola,  and  what  do  you  think !  He 
was  down  on  all  fours,  with  three  children  on  his  back, 
riding  him  for  a  horse."  When  dining  at  a  hotel  or 
restaurant  he  seldom  left  the  table  without  filling  his 
pockets  with  sweets  to  give  to  some  poor  child.     He 



had  special  sympathy  for  the  children  of  the  poor.  He 
always  regretted  that  the  Swiss  children  could  not  pro- 
perly understand  his  North  German  dialect,  and  there- 
fore could  not  chat  with  him  as  freely  as  he  would 
have  liked.  He  would  stop  anywhere  in  the  street  to 
speak  with  children,  and  when  he  became  known  to 
them  they  would  follow  him  about  in  groups,  shy,  yet 
eager  to  attract  his  notice. 

Until  late  in  life  Brahms  invariably  refused  to  sit  for 
his  portrait,  even  his  friend,  Anselm  Feuerbach,  being 

unable  to  shake  his  determination.  Once, 
Portraits  while  he  was  visiting  at  Kandersteg,  Wid- 
and  a  mann's  summer  home,  the  latter,  thinking 

Subterfuge    to  outwit  him,  had  an   artist  come  to  the 

house,  ostensibly  to  paint  his  (Widmann's) 
little  daughter.  When  the  time  came  for  the  sitting  she 
was  placed  in  a  direct  line  with  Brahms,  so  that  the 
artist,  in  seeming  to  look  at  the  little  girl,  could  be 
taking  in  his  features.  The  artist  set  to  work,  but  had 
not  proceeded  far  before  Brahms  saw  through  their 
ruse,  and  excused  himself  on  the  ground  that  he  did 
not  like  to  inflict  cigarette  smoke  upon  the  ladies  and 
children  (he  was  already  upon  his  fifth  or  sixth).  He 
quietly  left  the  room,  and  remained  upon  the  verandah 
until  the  artist  had  gotten  well  along  on  a  portrait  of  the 
child,  which  had  been  decided  upon  at  the  last  minute. 
Later  in  life  he,  in  a  large  measure,  got  over  this  anti- 
pathy, and  one  etching  particularly,  Klinger's  '■^Brahms 
Fantasias''''  (an  imaginative   reproduction  of  the   "In- 

The  Man 

termezzi  and  Fantasias,"  for  Piano),  gave  him  keenest 

Amateur  photographs,  especially  snap-shots  of  him 
taken   without    his    knowledge,    gave    him 
great  pleasure.      Perhaps  the  best  of  these      Amateur 
was   by    Frau   Fellinger   of  Vienna,  whose      Portraits 
house  was  a  true  home  for  Brahms  in  his  — and 

last   years.      One   of  his   peculiarities   was        Mirrors 
that  he  did  not  use  a  mirror,  urging  as  a 
reason  that  he  saw  his  face  so  often  in  pictures  that  he 
had  no  need  of  one. 

Brahms  was  very  partial  to  the  Summer  Theatre  on 
the  Schanzli,  where  operas  and  operettas  were  frequently 
given,  mostly  with  piano  accompaniment. 
He  never  missed  a  performance  of  Johann  Admirer 
Strauss'  Die  Fliedermaus.  His  admira-  of  Johann 
tion  for  Strauss  was  genuine,  for  on  Strauss 
one  occasion  at  a  social  gathering,  where 
the  musical  friends  of  Madame  Johann  Strauss  were 
writing  upon  her  fan  their  names,  with  phrases  from 
their  works,  Brahms  wrote  the  opening  measures  of  the 
"Beautiful  Blue  Danube  Waltzes,"  and  underneath  it, 
"  Not,  I  regret  to  say,  by  your  devoted  friend,  Johannes 
Brahms."  Strauss'  band  in  the  Volksgarten  was  among 
Brahms'  most  constant  enjoyments. 

Brahms  has  been  somewhat  maligned  as  being  quick- 
tempered, but  certainly  the  testimony  of  those  who 
knew  him  well  would  prove  the  contrary.  Unquestion- 
ably he  was  genial  in  his  personal  relations,  of  a  naturally 



cheerful  disposition,  and  never  took  himself  too  seri- 
ously. Leaning  out  of  the  window  in  the 
Cheerful  sunshine,  and  stroking  his  flowing  beard, 
Disposi-  he  one  day  called  out  to  Dietrich,  "  See,  I 
Hon  am    trying   to   run    opposition   to    Michael 

Angelo's  'Moses.'"  He  would  go  sing- 
ing or  whistling  along  the  road  in  early  morning, 
hat  in  hand,  always  with  a  kindly  greeting  for  those  he 
met.  For  more  than  twenty  years  he  lived  in  the  same 
quiet  house  on  the  same  quiet  street,  with  very  few 
social  pleasures  excepting  the  fortnightly  meetings  of 
the  Tonkiinstlerverein. 

After    his    father's    death    he    supported    his    step- 
mother,   and    also    his    brother   Frederick, 
Not  inti-      who   died   in    1886,   but  otherwise  had  no 
mate  with     intercourse   with    him    or    with    his    sister 
Family         Elise,    who    died    in    1892,    with    both    of 
whom  he  had  little  in  common. 
Brahms'  attitude  towards  his  art  and  its  great  masters 
was  always  one  of  greatest  reverence,  Bach  being  pro- 
bably highest  in  his  esteem.     An  illustration 
""A  Bottle   very  much  to  the  point  is  afforded  by  an 
of  Bach'''     anecdote    related   by    Henschel.      In    1876 
Brahms  was  the  guest  of  the  owner  of  a  fine 
vineyard,  famous  for  the  quality  of  its  wine.     At  table  a 
member  of  the  party,  meaning  to  compliment  both  the 
host  and  the  guest  of  honour,  remarked,  "Yes,  gentle- 
men, what  Brahms  is  among  composers  this  Rauenthaler 
is  among  the  wines."     Quick  as  a  flash  Brahms  spoke 


The   Man 

up,    "Ah!      Then    let    us    have    a    bottle    of    Bach 

He  had  a  warm  affection  for  Haydn,  and  spent  much 
time  analysing  the  latter's  symphonies.  So  devoted  was 
he  to  Beethoven  that  he  used  religiously  to 
frequent  the  old  restaurant  in  the  Wildmarkt  Haydn  and 
where  Beethoven  used  to  dine.  He  pos-  Beethoven 
sessed  many  valuable  autographs,  among 
them  that  of  Mozart's  G  minor  Symphony  and  Schu- 
bert's "Wanderer." 

Dr  Hanslick  says  that  during  their  long  and  intimate 
friendship    Brahms    never    referred    to   his 
(Hanlick's)    many   critiques    on    his   work,    Hafisltck's 
though    one    day  he  quietly  surprised   him       Critiques 
with   the    dedication    of    the    "  Four-hand 
Waltzes  "  (Op.  39). 

Brahms  had  a  great  talent  for  teaching,  and,  in  the 
opinion  of  Heuberger,  would  have  made  an  excellent 
teacher  for  advanced  pupils.     It  seems  that 
he  would  have  been  willing  to  establish  an        Brahms 
"  Advanced  School  of  Composition  "  at  the  as  a 

Vienna  Conservatory,  such  as  had  long  been  Teacher 
in  existence  at  the  Academy  of  Plastic  Arts. 
When  the  question  was  raised  as  to  his  being  able  to 
find  time  for  such  work,  he  remarked,  "The  few  notes 
which  I  write  during  the  winter  are  of  absolutely  no 

One   time   he  said  to  Henschel,  "  I  am   not  at  all 
ashamed  to  own  that  it  gives  me  great  pleasure  if  a 



song  or  an  adagio,  or  anything  of  mine,  has  turned  out 

to  be  particularly  good.  What  I  cannot 
True  understand  is  how  people  like  myself  can  be 

Modesty       vain."    He  often  said,  "  One  can  never  hope 

to  get  upon  the  level  of  such  giants  as  Bach 
and  Beethoven.  One  can  only  work  conscientiously  in 
one's  own  field." 

Brahms  worked  slowly,   letting  his  ideas  germinate 
and  take  their  own  time  in  arranging  themselves.     "  Let 

it  rest,"  was  his  advice  to  a  young  composer. 
Worked  "  Let  it  rest,  and  keep  going  back  to  it  and 
Sloivly         working  at  it  over  and  over  again  until  it  is 

completed  as  a  finished  work  of  art;  until 
there  is  not  a  note  too  much  or  too  little,  not  a  measure 
you  could  improve  upon.  Whether  it  is  beautiful  2X%Q> 
is  an  entirely  different  matter,  but  perfect  it  must  be. 
You  see  I  am  lazy,  but  I  never  cool  down  over  a  work 
once  begun,  until  it  is  perfected,  unassailable.  One 
ought  never  to  forget  that  by  actually  perfecting  one 
piece  one  learns  more  than  by  beginning  or  half-finishing 

At  another  time  he  said,  "Do  you  suppose  that  my 
songs  occur  to  me  ready-made  and  all   polished?     I 

have  tormented  myself  in  curious  ways  over 
"  Whistle  them.  Do  you  know — but  do  not  take 
a  Song"       this  too  literally — that  you  must  be  able  to 

whistle  a  song,  then  it  is  good.  .  .  .  The 
feeling  to  be  expressed  is  of  the  first  importance ;  the 
medium  is  secondary." 

1 06 

The   Man 

It  will  be  seen  that  Brahms  was  glad  to  advise  and 
help  young  musicians,  and  paid  great  atten- 
tion to  the  smallest   details   in   criticising,        Helping 
even  to  the  musical  hand-writing.     In  this  Young 

connection  it  might  be  profitable  to  repeat    Musicians 
some  advice  which  he  gave  to  a  young  com- 
poser as  follows : — 

"  You  must  practise  more  gymnastics,  four-part  songs, 
variations,  etc." 

"  In  writing  songs,  you  must  endeavour  Advice  to 
to  invent  simultaneously  with  the  melody  a  Beginners 
healthy,  powerful  bass." 

"No  heavy  dissonances  on  the  unaccented  part  of 
the  measure,  please." 

The  following  remark  made  to  a  singer  is  interesting, 
and  may  call  forth  more  protest  than  any  of  the  fore- 
going :  "  As  far  as  I  am  concerned,  a 
thinking,  sensible  singer  may,  without  hesi-  Liberties 
tation,  alter  a  note  which  for  some  reason  with  Corn- 
ox  other  is  out  of  his  compass  into  one  positions 
which  he  can  reach  with  comfort,  provided 
always  the  declamation  remains  correct  and  the  accentua- 
tion does  not  suffer.'' 

His  aim  in  all  his  works  was  the  attainment  of  har- 
monious beauty,  combined  with  perfect  form 
and  purity  of  feeling,  transfiguring  everything,    Manner  of 
even  the  commonplace  into  a  lofty  and  peace-    Composing 
ful  calm.     In  his  music  emotion  is  not  ex- 
cluded, it  is  regulated.     It  was  his  habit  to  work  inde- 



fatigably,  but  with  no  haste  or  impatience.  All  his  life 
he  is  said  to  have  written  a  contrapuntal  exercise  each 
day.  His  assimilative  faculty  was  enormous.  He  de- 
scribed his  manner  of  composing  as  follows:  "When  I 
have  found  the  first  phrase  of  a  song,  I  might  shut  the 
book  then  and  there,  go  for  a  walk,  do  some  other  work, 
and  perhaps  not  think  of  it  again  for  months.  Nothing, 
however,  is  lost.  If  I  afterward  approach  the  subject 
again,  it  is  sure  to  have  taken  shape.  I  can  now  really 
begin  to  work  at  it." 

Brahms  was  a  man  of  clear  ideas  and  firm  principles, 
not  only  in  all  that  concerned  art  and  literature,  but 
also  in  other  fields  of  thought.  His  in- 
Musicfor  tellectual  horizon  was  wide,  his  mental 
the  Masses  vision  clear  and  healthy,  his  judgment  sane 
on  all  subjects,  therefore  it  is  not  to  be 
wondered  at  that  he  was  no  visionary  in  his  art  theories. 
This  is  evident  from  his  sympathy  with  the  omnipresent 
Maennerchor  (men's  choruses)  and  brass  bands,  on  the 
ground  that  they  are  the  most  convenient  form  in  which 
the  common  man  can  acquire  his  musical  education. 
His  attitude  towards  this  and  several  kindred  subjects  is 
well  expressed  by  a  letter  which  he  wrote  to  Widmann 

about  ten  years  before  his  death  : — 
Temper-  "Your   zeal   against   male   choruses  and 

ance  brass  bands  reminds  me  of  the  temperance 

Societies       societies  which  occasionally  ask  me  for  sym- 
pathy.   But  I  have  none.     It  is  so  easy  to 
deprive  the  poor  man  of  his  oft  sorely-needed  dram.     I 

1 08 

The   Man 

should  be  much  in  their  favour  if  such  societies  had 
the  object  and  power  of  procuring  compensation  for  him 
by  making  wine,  beer  and  coffee  cheaper. 

"Now,  male  choruses  and  the  modern  brass  instru- 
ments are  convenient  for  the  common  man  ; 
everything  else  is    to   be  approached   more  Male 

cautiously  and  learned  earlier.  Unfortun-  Choruses 
ately,  amongst  the  so-called  better  classes  a  a^id  Brass 
fondness   for  any  other  instrument  but  the  Bands 

piano  seems  to  be  almost  non-existent. 

"It   is  very  desirable  that  parents  should  let  their 
children    learn    other    instruments — violin, 
'cello,  flute,  clarionet,  horn,  etc.  (this  would     Too  much 
also  be  the  means  of  arousing  interest  in  all  Piano 

sorts  of  music). 

"  But  there  could  be  more  and  better  work  done  for 
singing  in  the  schools,  as  also  by  letting  boys  commence 
the  violin  very  early.  ...  I  have  often  seen 
that  done  in  Austrian  villages.  The  sing-  Singing  in 
ing  of  the  Mass  in  Catholic  churches  is  also  the  Schools 
far  from  stupid.  To  sing  at  sight  in  all 
keys,  and  to  be  intimate  with  fugues !  .  .  ." 

At  another  time  Brahms  wrote  to  Widmann  :  "  With 
marriage  it  is  as  with  opera.  If  I  had  already  composed 
an  opera  and,  for  all  I  care,  seen  it  fail,  I 
would  certainly  write  another,  but  I  can't  Concerning 
make  up  my  mind  to  a  first  opera  or  a  first  Marriage 
marriage."  And  still  another  time,  "  I  have 
missed  my  chance.     At  the  time  I  wished  for  it  I  could 




not  offer  a  wife  what  I  should  have  felt  was  right. 
I  sometimes  regret  that  I  did  not  marry.  I  ought  to 
have  a  boy  of  ten  now  ;  that  would  be  nice.  But  when 
I  was  of  the  right  age  for  marrying  I  lacked  the  position 
to  do  so,  and  now  it  is  too  late.  At  the  time  when  I 
should  have  liked  to  marry  my  music  was  either  hissed 
in  the  concert  rooms  or  at  least  received  with  icy  cold- 
ness. Now,  for  myself  I  could  bear  that  quite  easily, 
because  I  knew  its  worth,  and  that  some  day  the  tables 
would  be  turned.  And  when  after  such  failures  I 
entered  my  lonely  room  I  was  not  unhappy.  On  the 
contrary  !  But  if  in  such  moments  I  had  had  to  meet 
the  anxious  questioning  eyes  of  a  wife,  with  the  words, 
'  Another  failure,'  I  could  not  have  borne  that.  For  a 
woman  may  love  an  artist  whose  wife  she  is  ever  so 
much,  and  even  do  what  is  called  believe  in  her  hus- 
band, still  she  cannot  have  the  perfect  certainty  of 
victory  which  is  in  his  heart.  And  if  she  had  wanted 
to  comfort  me — a  wife  to  pity  her  husband  for  his  non- 
success — ugh !  I  cannot  think  what  a  hell  that  would 
have  been,  at  least  to  me  ...  It  has  been  for  the 
best,"  he  added. 

However,  the   subject  was   not  a   painful   one  with 

him,  for  it  was  his  habit   to   inform   inquiring   ladies, 

"  It  is  my  misfortune  still  to  be  unmarried, 

Unmarried  thank  God  ! "    Widmann,  who  now  resides  in 

Rome,  also  relates  the  following  anecdote : — 

"  I  had  a  cook  who  possessed  the  melodious  name  of 
Mora.     No   other  woman    in    Rome   could   equal  her 


The   Man 

palatable  preparation  of  cauliflower  and/^w/  (^0x0.  My 
friend  Brahms  and  the  noted  surgeon  Billroth  paid  me 
a  visit  one  day,  and  I  invited  them  to  a  Roman  break- 
fast which  was  prepared  by  Mora  inimitably.  The  wine 
was  good,  and  Billroth,  raising  his  glass,  cried  out 
enthusiastically,  '  Oh  !  Horace  hath  quaffed  these 
draughts  ! '  Brahms,  however,  who  was  busy  analysing 
the  food,  fell  into  a  reverie,  and  after  some  time  re- 
marked that  it  might  be  his  duty  to  select  a  wife  who 
could  cook  in  such  excellent  style  as  Mora.  'This 
girl  should  really  be  married,'  he  repeated  as  his 
good  humour  increased.  I  then  took  the  liberty, 
by  way  of  a  joke,  of  calling  the  girl  out  of  the 
kitchen,  and  telling  her  that  I  had  found  a  suitor  for 
her  hand. 

"  '  Who  is  he  ? '  asked  Mora,  anxiously. 

"  '  This  renowned  German  artist  here.  He  ought  to 
suit  you,  for  you  also  love  music  and  sing  all  day  like  a 

"  Mora's  reply  was  startling.     She  measured  Brahms 
from   head   to   foot,    and    answered   with    the    utmost 
hauteur,    '  I    am   a   Roman,    born    on   the 
Ponte  Rotto,    near   the   Temple   of    Vesta  '■' Bar- 

.  .  .  I  shall  never  marry  a  Bar-  barian" 
barian  ! ' " 

Hugo  Conrat,  of  London,  who  knew  Brahms  in- 
timately during  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life,  says  that 
he  felt  the  loneliness  of  his  bachelorhood  very  keenly 
at  times.      "Yes,  you   lucky  fellow,"  he   would  often 



exclaim,  "you  are  going  to  the  bosom  of  your  family, 
while  I,  poor,  lonesome  bachelor !  .  .  ." 

As    is  well   known,    Brahms   never   wrote   an   opera, 
possibly  because  he  never  found  a  libretto  to  his  taste, 

but  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  contem- 
Fond  of  the  plated  writing  one  or  more.  He  was  an 
Theatre        indefatigable  theatre-goer,  never  missing  the 

first  performance  of  any  play  of  importance 
in  Vienna,  and  possessed  extraordinary  dramatic  in- 
stinct, pathos  particularly  affecting  him.  He  was  moved 
to  tears  by  the  nobility  of  sentiment  in  Goethe's 
Geschwister,  which  he  saw  in  Vienna  with  Widmann 
in  1 88 1.  For  opera  he  seemed  to  care  less,  for  he 
often  left  after  the  first  act,  urging  as  his  excuse, 
"You  know  I  understand  nothing  about  the  theatre." 
During  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  he  generally 
avoided  operatic  performances  entirely,  though  he  was 
always  eager  when  speaking  of  subjects  relating  to  the 

He  believed  that  it  was  not  only  unnecessary  but 
positively  harmful  and  inartistic  to  compose  music  for 

an  entire  drama ;  only  the  climaxes  should 
Theories  be  so  treated,  or  those  parts  where  words 
concern-  alone  would  not  suffice  to  express  the  mean- 
ing  Opera     ing.     He  considered  it  great  presumption  to 

expect  music  to  accompany  purely  dramatic 
dialogue  throughout  several  acts.  He  felt  that  by  con- 
fining the  music  to  special  parts  of  the  operas,  the 
librettist  gains  more  time  and  freedom  for  the  dramatic 


The  Man 

development  and  the  composer  is  enabled  to  devote 
himself  exclusively  to  the  demands  of  his  art. 

Nevertheless,  the  idea  of  an  opera  haunted  him  for 
a  long  time,  for  early  in  his  career  he  spoke 
about  a  very  curious  text  for  an  opera,  and        Operatic 
later  asked  Widmann  to  look  over  Gozzi's  Possi- 

dramatic  fables  and  farces,  especially  "  Konig  bilities 

Hirsch"   and    "  Der   Rabe."      "Das    laute 
Geheimniss  "  also  interested  him  in  Gozzi's  version. 

Widmann  read  "  Konig  Hirsch  "  over  carefully,  and 
wrote  to  Brahms  expressing  doubts  as  to  the  possibility 
of  using  it  for  an  opera  libretto,  but  still 
was  entirely  ready  to  go  ahead  if  Brahms        "Konig 
so   wished.       In   November    1877    Brahms       Hirsch" 
wrote  back,  "  I  am  waiting  in  vain  for  a 
quiet  moment  in  which  to  think  over  your  suggestions. 
In  the  meantime  I  must  at  least  send  you  my  heartiest 
thanks.  ...     As  for  me,  I  have  so  often  vowed  never 
again  to  think  of  a  libretto — that  I  should  be  so  easily 
tempted  thereto !     But  my  inertia  in  the   matter  has 
certainly  increased  though  I  cannot  say  whether  it  has 
done  so  in  other  respects  !     So  it  would  really  be  wiser 
for  you  not  to  think  of  me  at  all,  still  it  would  be  nice 
if  the  subject  interested  you   and   you   gave   it  some 
further  thought.   ...     I    should  at  first  chiefly  think  of 
the  Dialogue  and  Secco-Recitative — or  rather  at  present 
it  would  seem  a  matter  of  indifference  to  me  how  the 
action  was  developed  except  in  emotional  climaxes. 
"At  all  events  let  us  both  think  the  matter  over  until 
H  113 


the  spring,  when  I  shall  be  free  to  choose  where  to  spend 
the  summer.  If  you  can  spare  the  time  let  me  know 
what  ideas  you  have." 

In  the  next  year  Widmann  sent  the  outline  of  a 
libretto  to  Vienna,  but  received  no  reply  until  after  the 
appearance  of  the  Second  Symphony  (in  November  1878). 
"  Oh !  Konig  Hirsch  !  He  is  still  lying  on  my  table  ! 
I  do  not  deserve  it,  but  have  you  occasion- 
"■  Konig  ally  given  it  a  thought?  Heartiest  greet- 
Hirsch  "  ings  and  don't  be  angry  with  your  Johannes 
Defunct       Brahms." 

Here  the  matter  ended. 
Some  years  later  Widmann  again  wrote  him  that  it 
had  been  reported  that  they  were  collaborating  on  an 
opera.     Brahms  replied  under  date  of  Janu- 
Marriage     ary    7,   1888,     "Have  I    never  told  you  of 
and  my  good  resolutions,  father  of  my  Johanna  ?  " 

Opera  (Widmann's   daughter   whom    Brahms   also 

called  his  bride).  "Amongst  these  to  try 
neither  an  opera  again  nor  marriage.  Otherwise,  I 
think  I  should  immediately  undertake  two  (that  is 
operas)  'Konig  Hirsch'  and  'Das  laute  Geheimniss.' 
Of  the  latter  I  have  even  a  libretto  ready,  made  years 
ago  by  that  same  engraver  in  copper,  Allgeier,  who  has 
now  written  those  good  essays  on  Feuerbach.  Now  if 
you,  dear  friend,  have  downright  liberal  views  and 
principles,  you  will  easily  see  how  much  money  I  save 
and  can  spare  for  a  journey  in  Italy — if  in  the  summer 
I  neither  marry  nor  buy  a  libretto."     He  several  times 


The  Man 

later  alluded  to  opera,  and  always  had  a  soft  spot  in  his 
heart  for  the  plays  named,  but  the  matter  never  went 
any  further. 

Brahms'  theories  concerning  the  music  drama  were 
of  course  diametrically  opposed  to  those  of  Wagner,  for 
whom,   however,   he  had   great   admiration 
and  appreciation.     He   especially   admired  As  a 

Wagner's  lofty  aims,  and  spoke  of  his  music  Wagnerite 
dramas  as  "  Great  works,  so  ideally  con- 
ceived and  executed."  He  called  himself,  "The  best 
of  Wagnerites,"  and  rejoiced  in  the  honours  showered 
upon  Wagner,  believing  that  the  position  of  every 
musician  had  been  raised  by  them.  Hanslick,  the 
great  Viennese  critic,  states  that  Brahms'  comprehen- 
sion of  Wagner's  scores  was  probably  more  profound 
than  that  of  any  other  man,  Wagner  himself  only 
excepted,  and  that  he  often  heard  Brahms  defend 
Wagner  against  hostile  criticism. 

Wagner,  on  the  other  hand,  could  find  no  good  word 
to  say  about  Brahms,  but  once  said  of  him,  "  Brahms 
is  a  composer  whose  importance  lies  in  his 
not  wishing  to  create  any  striking  effects."        Wagner 
Wagner  treated  his  contemporaries  with  the  as  a 

greatest  animosity,  and  was  particularly  Brahmsite 
caustic  towards  Brahms'  works.  Once  when 
someone  reported  some  fresh  sarcasm  of  Wagner  to 
Brahms,  he  exclaimed,  "Good  heaven!  Wagner 
honoured  and  triumphant,  takes  up  most  of  the  high 
road.     How  can  I,  going  my  own  modest  way,  be  any 



interference   or   annoyance  to  him  ?     Why   cannot   he 
leave  me  in  peace  since  we  are  never  likely  to  clash  ?  " 

He  one  day  showed  Heuberger  Wagner's  own  manu- 
script of   Tannhduser,  and  pointing  to  the  second  act 

said,  "Just  look  at  this.  Wagner  has  written 
Praise  of  the  five  sharps  with  painful  accuracy  on 
Wagner       each  staff  of  every  page,   and  in    spite   of 

the  precision  the  handwriting  is  free  and 
flowing.  If  he  could  write  it  so  neatly  it  would  not 
hurt  you  to  do  so  also.  .  .  .  What  nonsense  !  Those 
who  have  gone  somewhat  astray  through  his  influence 
have  done  so  through  their  own  misinterpretation  of 
Wagner;  of  the  true  Wagner  they  know  absolutely 
nothing.  Wagner  has  as  clear  a  head  as  ever  there 
was  in  the  world."  (Brahms  was  severe  in  reproof  but 
warm  in  praise,  as  is  evident  from  these  few  remarks. 
The  first  was  the  result  of  his  tremendous  seriousness ; 
the  second  of  his  unusual  kindness  of  heart.) 

For  all  his  admiration  of  Wagner,  Brahms  could  not 
always  agree  with  him,  nor  did  he  invariably  praise. 

Concerning  the  "  Ring  "  he  said,  "  I  myself 
Attitude  must  confess  that  Die  Walkilre  and  Das 
towards  Goiterdcimmerufig  have  a  great  hold  on 
Wagner       me.     For  Das  Rheitigold  and  Siegfried  I  do 

not  particularly  care."  Of  some  parts  of 
Siegfried  he  said  at  another  time,  "  I  am  sure  nobody 
would  see  anything  particular  in  it  if  one  of  us  had 
written  it.  .  .  .  And  those  endless  duets ! "  For 
Tristan  he  had  a  particular  dislike,  saying,  "  If  I  look 


The  Man 

at  that  in  the  morning  I  am  cross  for  the  rest  of  the 
day."  But,  in  spite  of  differences  of  opinion  such  as 
these,  the  Viennese  master  never  failed  to  express  his 
profound  respect  for  his  great  rival,  the  magnitude  of 
whose  intentions  and  his  energy  in  carrying  them  out 
calling  forth  his  unbounded  praise.  Many  ardent  Wag- 
nerites  have  accused  Brahms  of  jealousy,  but  the  charge 
cannot  be  proven.  The  consensus  of  opinion  among 
his  intimates  is  that  he  envied  no  one.  He  felt  secure 
in  his  own  position,  and  was  of  too  noble  a  mind  to 
begrudge  others  their  success. 

He  was  loud  in  his  praises  of  Mozart's  Figaro,  and 
spoke  of  the  works  of  the  great  masters  with  deepest 
veneration,  but  with  his  contemporaries  he 
was  as  stern  a  judge  as  with  himself.  P'or  Mozart 
Verdi  he  felt  genuine  admiration.  Upon  atid  Verdi 
once  hearing  Von  Biilow  speak  in  disparaging 
terms  of  Verdi's  "Requiem,"  Brahms  went  immediately 
to  Hug's  music  store  (Zurich),  and,  obtaining  the  piano 
score,  read  it  through.  When  he  had  finished  it  he  said, 
"  Billow  has  made  a  fool  of  himself  for  all  time  :  only  a 
genius  could  have  written  that." 

The    unfortunate    Goetz,   whose   first   meeting   with 
Brahms  was  rather  unpropitious,  died  at  an  early  age, 
of  consumption.      His   posthumous  opera, 
Francesca  da  Rimini,  was  first  performed  at  Goetz's 

Mannheim   in   September    1877.      Brahms  Opera 

journeyed  all  the  way  from  Vienna  to  this 
first  performance,  thus  showing  the  deep  sympathy  he 



felt  with  the  ideal  aspirations  and  tragic  fate  of  this  pro- 
mising young  composer. 

Hanslick  says  of  him  :  "  Brahms,  who  supports  with 
word  and  deed  every  serious  ambition  of  a  pronounced 
talent — unnoticed,  silently  as  Schumann  used  to  do — 
procured  a  publisher  for  Dvofak,  whose  modesty  amounts 
to  bashfulness." 



Brahms  :  The  Musician 

As  a   musician    Brahms    attained    first   rank    in    every 
department   toward  which   he  directed  his 
energies,  and  his  activities  included  practi-  His 

cally  every  field  of  musical  endeavour,  except    Versatility 
dramatic  composition. 

As  pianist,  conductor  and  composer  of  vocal,  piano, 
chamber  and  orchestral  music,  his  mastership  is  undis- 
puted. As  an  exponent  of  absolute  music 
he  stands  as  probably  the  most  heroic  figure  Exponent 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  after  Beethoven,  of  Absolute 
The  term  "absolute  music"  may  be   mis-  Music 

leading.  Brahms'  contention  was  that  music 
ought  to  be  so  true  to  life  that  no  words  or  programme 
are  necessary  to  explain  its  meaning.  If  they  are  neces- 
sary, it  is  a  confession  that  music  falls  short  of  the  ideal. 
There  have  been  others  of  his  contemporaries  who  may 
have  rivalled  him  in  particular  directions, 
but  none  outshone  him,  and  no  one  achieved  Much  in 
such  high  standing  along  so  many  lines,  or  Common 
attained    to   such   colossal   mastery  of  the  with 

technique  of  expression.     Having  much  in     Browning 
common  with    Browning,  in  that  he  deals 
with  the  larger,  deeper  emotions  which  are  less  intelligible 
to  the  masses,  his  works   are    marked  by  a  dramatic 
intensity  resulting  from  terseness  of  expression,  which 




seems  at  times  almost  harsh.  No  modern  composer  has 
expressed  deeper  or  more  fervent  feelings,  either  jubi- 
lant or  sad,  than  Brahms.  He  was  a  composer  "in  the 
grand  style."  ^  "  Since  Beethoven  we  hardly  find  anyone 
so  free  from  all  that  is  trite  and  commonplace  in  his 
music ;  no  artist  possesses  in  so  great  a  degree  the  virtue 
of  self-restraint,  or  is  so  averse  to  all  that  fascinates  by 
merely  external  or  transient  attractions." 

Brahms  is  thoroughly  modern,  but  is  never  a  revolu- 
tionist ;  his  works  are  a  "  modern  conservative  force  in 

music."  "While  we  have  a  warrior  like 
Thoroughly  Wagner  to  slay  the  dragon  of  Philistinism, 
Modern        we  have  a  genius  like  Brahms  to  give  modern 

significance  to  classical  forms."  To  him  art 
was  something  sacred,  worthy  of  his  highest  effort  and 
noblest  purpose.  His  work  from  the  beginning  is  naive 
and  simple,  and  displays  no  reformatory  tendencies ;  it 
is  remarkable  for  its  power  and  energy,  and  its  consistent 
adherence  to  the  main  idea. 

His  music  always  shows  the  chastening  control  of  his 
massive  intellect.     His  earlier  works  exhibit  romantic 

tendencies,  a  leaning  towards  the  "  music  of 
Early  the  future  " — in  this  vein  he  was  earnestly 

Works  commended  by  Liszt  —  and  are  character- 
Romantic  ised  by  an  over-maturity,  a  leaning  toward 
in  Tendency  over-display  of  erudition,  which  disappeared 

in  his  works  beginning  with  Op.  ii  (which 
is  sometimes  said  to  mark  the  beginning  of  his  "second 

'  "  The  real  epic  touch,  the  white  Alpine  subHtnity  of  Beethoven's 
Mass  in  D,  or  Brahms'  Schicksalslied." — Hadow. 

The  Musician 

period  ").  Ample  and  effective  use  of  syncopations,  a 
peculiar  style  of  accompaniments,  bold  modulations  and 
rhythmic  devices,  and  occasionally  even  some  pro- 
grammatic suggestions,  occur  in  his  first  work.  His 
growth  was  toward  clearness  and  the  abandonment  of 
those  characteristics  least  pleasing  to  superficial  hearers. 
It  is  significant  that  thirty  years  after  its  first  pubhcation 
Brahms  recomposed  Op.  8  (Trio  for  Piano,  Violin 
and  'Cello),  and  the  corrections  in  nearly  every  case 
took  the  form  of  simplifications.  His  character  through- 
out is  marked  by  a  native  ruggedness,  and  it  was  prob- 
ably this  trait  which  enabled  him  to  live  so  long  in 
Vienna  without  losing  his  individuality.  There  is  a 
vein  of  reposeful,  reflective  humour,  which  corresponds 
to  the  dry  wit  of  literary  art,  which  is  Brahms'  very  own. 

Brahms   is  a  master  of  detail — in  fact,  he  is  more 
detailed  and  minute  than  any  other  master.^    This,  with 
his   great    command    of    the    resources   of 
counterpoint,   has   earned   him  the  title  of    Master  of 
"  Modernised  Bach,"  a  title  which,  if  it  had  Detail 

not  offended  him  as  smacking  of  flattery, 
would  have  pleased  him  very  much.  Until  the  time  of 
his  death  it  could  be  said  that  his  influence  was  deeply 
rather  than  widely  felt ;  but  since  that  event  there  has 
been  a  great  spread  of  both  his  influence  and  apprecia- 
tion, so  that  there  is  to-day  almost  as  strong  a  Brahms' 
cult  in  England  and  America  as  in  Germany  itself. 

As  a  pianist  he  attained  first  rank.    He  was  a  virtuoso 

'  "  Brahms  is  a  poet,  intent  on  weaving  a  network  of  beautiful 
thoughts  around  his  ideal." — Hadow. 



of  great  power  and  brilliant  technique.     His  execution 
of  Bach,  especially  the  organ  works  on  the 
As  a  piano,  was  unrivalled  among  his  contempor- 

Pianist  aries.  He  played  not  so  much  to  the 
listeners  as  for  himself,  appearing  as  if  in- 
spired, his  great  technique  being  always  a  secondary 
consideration.  One  who  heard  him  play  his  D  minor 
Concerto,  when  still  in  his  prime,  described  the  perform- 
ance as  wonderful.  "  He  would  lift  his  hands  up  high, 
and  let  them  come  down  with  a  force  like  that  of  a 
lion's  paw."  Another  says:  "His  playing  is  powerful 
and  soft,  full  of  pith  and  meaning,  and  never  louder 
than  it  is  lovely." 

This   force   which   always  characterised   his   playing 
later  degenerated  into  something  not  quite  so  admirable, 
as  Dr  William  Mason   writes   about  a  per- 
His  formance  in   1880:    "Brahms'  playing   was 

Playing  in    far  from  finished  or  even  musical.     His  tone 
18S0  was  dry  and  devoid  of  sentiment,  his  inter- 

pretation inadequate,  lacking  style  and  con- 
tour. It  was  the  playing  of  a  composer  and  not  a 
virtuoso.  He  paid  little,  if  any,  attention  to  the  marks 
of  expression  upon  the  copy.  The  continued  force  and 
harshness  of  tone  quite  overpowered  the  string  instru- 
ments." For  all  that,  the  fact  remains  that  so  long  as 
he  continued  to  appear  upon  the  concert  platform, 
Brahms'  playing  always  gave  pleasure  to  his  audiences, 
and  he  was  invariably  greeted  with  enthusiasm. 

As  a  conductor  Brahms  was  most  inspiring,  leading 

The  Musician 

with    firmness   and   authority,    and    spurring    on    those 

under    his    baton     to     their    best    efforts. 

"  Both    as    performer    and    conductor    he  As  a 

always   appeared    as    if    inspired,    and    in-     Conductor 

spiring    everybody    who    sang    or     played 

under  him  or  listened.     At  the  pianoforte  or  desk  he 

was  a  king,  but    socially  unaffected  and   easy,  neither 

reticent  nor  predominating    in  conversation,  jolly  and 

kind  among  friends  and  children." 

Brahms  was  the  last  great  composer  of  the  classical 
school.'  In  spite  of  strong  modern  tendencies,  he  was 
utterly  opposed  to  the  so-called  "  New 
German  School."  He  stood  for  the  system-  Last  Great 
atic  principle  of  musical  form.  In  style  Classical 
and  construction  he  displayed  a  power  now  Composer 
quite  unique.  He  was  always  a  master, 
never  drawn  from  the  main  idea,  in  spite  of  the  wealth 
of  episode  and  secondary  thought.  Music  to  him  was 
so  entirely  a  means  of  expression  that  he  made  mere 
sensuous  beauty  a  secondary  consideration,  always  sub- 
ordinate to  the  thought  to  be  expressed.  Hence  a  lack 
of  grace  and  a  density  which  often  characterise  his 
compositions.  His  work  was  wonderfully  condensed, 
his  constructive  power  masterly.  By  his  scholarly  de- 
velopment of  themes  he  seems  to  be  introducing  new 
thematic  material,  when  the  fact  is  he  is  gradually  un- 
folding and  expanding  the  possibilities  of  the  original 
theme  to  the  uttermost.      His  treatment  is  exhaustive 

■  "  Few  compositions  are  perfect  unless  they  have  been  signed  by 
Beethoven  or  Brahms." — Hadow. 


and  complete,  especially  in  his  later  pianoforte  composi- 
tions. In  all  that  relates  to  the  intellectual  faculty 
Brahms  is  indisputably  a  master,  though  he  sometimes 
exhibits  a  lack  of  feeling  for  the  purely  sensuous  side 
of  music — for  clear,  rich  tone  combinations. 

With  the  exception  of  Wagner,  Brahms  was  pre- 
eminent among  the  musicians  of  his  time 
Climax  of  for  the  definite  nature  of  his  individuality. 
Modern  He  appeared  as  the  climax  of  modern 
Musical  musical  thought,  standing,  as  it  were,  upon 
Thought  the  shoulders  of  Schumann,  whose  musical 
character  he  seems  to  have  inherited  to 
a  great  extent. 

Spitta  says:  "No  musician  was  better  read  in  his 
art,  or  more  constantly  disposed  to  appropriate  all  that 
was  new,  especially  all  newly  -  discovered 
Spitta^s  treasures  of  the  past.  His  passion  for 
Estimate  learning  wandered,  indeed,  into  every  field, 
and  resulted  in  a  rich  and  most  original 
culture  of  mind,  for  his  knowledge  was  not  mere 
acquirement,  but  became  a  living  and  fruitful  thing." 

Ferris  says  of  him :  "  The  perfect  blending  of  intel- 
lect with  emotion,  of  modern  feeling  and  sympathy  with 
old-fashioned  conscience,  thoroughness  and  symmetry 
of  form,  belong  to  Brahms  alone  among  modern  com- 
posers." Maitland  writes :  "  No  composer  has  invented 
lovelier  melodies,  or  set  them  in  more  delightful  sur- 
roundings. His  music  is  marked  by  a  felicitous  com- 
bination of  intense  earnestness  of  aim  and  nobility,  of 


The  Musician 

ideal  with  the  passionate  ardour  that  is  characteristic  of 
Southern  countries." 

By  the  average  Ustener  many  of  his  works  have  been 
regarded  as  uninteUigible.  Even  among  cultivated 
musicians  he  has  been  severely  criticised  as 
lacking  in  melodic  invention,  a  criticism  Repeated 
that  the  most  superficial  study  alone  could  Hearing 
justify.  His  fertility  of  invention  and  atten-  necessary 
tion  to  detail  was  so  great,  and  he  wove  his 
melodies  so  intricately,  that  many  hearings  are  necessary 
to  discover  the  real  contents  of  his  works.  Within  the 
past  generation  this  has  come  to  be  much  more  gener- 
ally understood,  until  now  intelligent  musicians  regard 
his  works  as  among  the  loftiest  and  most  spiritual  con- 
ceptions that  have  ever  been  expressed  in  musical  forms. 

As  Oscar  Bie  says  of  Brahms:  "He  worked  in  the 
world  of  tone  with  no  trace  of  virtuosity,  with  not  a 
suspicion  of  concession  to  the  understand- 
ing of  the  mere  amateur.  There  has,  in  our  No  Con- 
time,  been  no  music  written  so  free  from  cessions 
the  slightest  condescension."  "Stubborn, 
at  times  repellent,  even  in  her  smiles  not  very  gracious, 
his  music  seeks  to  make  no  proselytes;  but  whomso- 
ever she  wins  as  a  friend  she  holds  fast,  and  allows  that 
rarest  of  pleasure — the  pursuit  of  lofty  aims  and  the 
quiet  rapture  of  a  student." 

As  a  symphonist  Brahms  ranks  among  the  greatest.^ 
His   command   of  the  technique   of  composition  was 

'"The    great    symphonic    writers,    Beethoven,    Brahms    and 
Mozart." — Hadow. 



absolute,  his  sense  of  rhythm  perfect.  No  other  com- 
poser has  introduced  so  many  innovations 
Sense  of  of  melody  and  harmony  and  rhythm  ;  no 
Rhythm  other  composer  has  ever  exhibited  so 
great  variety  of  rhythm.  Not  a  virtuoso  in 
orchestration,  he  clothed  his  thoughts  in  the  language 
best  suited  to  their  expression.  Colour  plays  a  second- 
ary part  with  him,  hence  the  instrumentation  often 
seems  gray  and  subdued  beside  that  of  more  vivid 
colorists;  but  for  all  that  he  is  a  master  at  "musical 
landscape  painting,"  and,  in  his  Gipsy  Rondo,  Gipsy 
Songs,  and  similar  compositions,  has  at  his  command 
a  wealth  of  "local  colour."  His  thought  is  essentially 
orchestral  in  style.  Von  Biilow  says  of  him  :  "  In  Bach 
we  always  hear  the  organ ;  in  Beethoven,  the  orchestra ; 
in  Brahms,  both  organ  and  orchestra." 

The  Symphony  in  D  (No.  2)  is  strongly  marked  with 
Brahms'  own  individuality.  The  Fourth  seems  in  a 
measure  a  return  to  romanticism.  It  dis- 
Character-  plays  those  rare  combinations  of  intellect 
istics  of  and  emotion,  modern  feeling,  and  old- 
Symphonies  fashioned  skill,  which  are  the  very  essence 
of  Brahms'  style.  The  First  Symphony  of 
Brahms  has  been  called  the  Tenth,  as  though  it  were 
the  next  in  development  after  the  Ninth — and  greatest 
— of  Beethoven ;  ^  there  may  also  have  been  some  refer- 
ence to  the  similarity  in  the  first  theme  in  the  Finale  of 
each,  though  it  is  not  likely  that  Brahms  would  ever  be 
accused  of  plagiarism,  as  he  was  nothing  if  not  original, 

'  "We  have  at  last  a  Tenth  Symphony." — Von  B3low. 

The   Musician 

and  was  the  soul  of  honesty  itself.  His  is  truly  the 
"  Music  of  the  Future,"  for  the  world  is  just  beginning 
to  appreciate  it :  no  modern  composer  has  expressed 
deeper  or  more  fervent  emotion. 

As  a  composer  for  the  pianoforte  Brahms  had  little 
in    common    with    the   great    majority   of    his   contem- 
poraries.    For  programme  music  in  general 
he  cared  little.     His  mind  ran  naturally  to    Works  for 
polyphony,    so    that    he   was    the    greatest  Piano 

master  of  counterpoint  since  Bach.  He 
had  Beethoven's  wealth  of  musical  ideas,  and  Bach's 
skill  in  handling  them.  He  was  a  scholar  of  scholars  ; 
yet  with  all  his  perfection  of  art,  the  effect  was  7iot  that 
of  technique  as  an  end,  but  as  the  vehicle  for  the 
promulgation  of  his  musical  ideas.  Hence  his  music 
was  not  dry  bones,  but  the  living,  breathing  product  of 
a  lavish  imagination.  The  Intermezzo  in  E  flat  (Op. 
1 1 8)  is  perhaps  the  most  eloquent  expression  of  the 
tragic  in  all  pianoforte  music.  His  compositions  are 
extremely  difficult,  requiring  an  excellent  technique  for 
their  adequate  performance,  so  that  many  are  beyond 
the  reach  of  any  but  the  greatest  virtuosi.  But  they 
are  thoroughly  pianistic — not  orchestral  thoughts  written 
for  the  piano — modern,  and  withal  original.  They  are 
not  popular  with  concert  players,  because  they  lack  the 
superficial  brilliancy  of  effect  which  would  make  them 
instantaneously  successful.  It  is  evident  that  this  had  a 
great  deal  to  do  with  their  slow  growth  in  popularity. 

In  the  latter  part  of  his  career  the  larger  portion  of 


his  compositions  were   vocal   pieces   for  one  or  more 

voices.  He  published  seven  books  of  songs 
Songs  from  1880  to  1887,  exclusive  of  quartets  and 

romances  for  mixed  chorus.  These  songs 
are  characterised  by  intense  expression,  profusion  of 
melody  of  the  highest  order,  and  subtle  treatment  of 
popular  sentiment.  As  a  song-writer  Brahms  stands 
alone,  and  it  is  his  songs  that  first  won  him  general 
appreciation.  He  was  specially  fertile  and  original  in 
this  field,  which  was  perhaps  due  in  part  to  the  fact 
that  he  seldom  set  poems  that  had  been  set  by  other 

"  In  his  songs  he  recalls  Schubert  in  the  abundance 
and  charm  of  melody,  Schumann  in  the  delicacy  and 

truth  of  detail,  and  Franz  in  the  neatness  of 
JVof  a)i  elaboration,  yet  he  cannot  be  looked  upon 
Imitator      as  an  imitator  of  any  of  these  composers ; 

he  is  still  independent  and  original."  He 
began  where  Schumann  left  off.  His  vocal  melody  is 
most  expressive,  and,  as  a  rule,  independent  of  the 
accompaniment.  If  he  had  written  nothing  but  the 
songs,  he  would  be  entitled  to  rank  among  the  greatest 
composers  of  all  time. 

"  The  good  taste  which  invariably  guided 
Authors  him  in  the  choice  of  words  demands  poetry 
of  His  of  sterling  value  that  vibrates  in  the  heart." 

Songs  Hence  his  songs  were  set  to  words  by  the 

greatest  of  German  lyric  poets — such  as 
Goethe,    Holty,   Tieck,    Simrock,    Kopisch,    Hoffmann 


The   Musician 

von  Fallersleben,  Von  Platen,  Daumer,  Schenkendorff, 
Eichendorff,  Kl.  Groth,  Morike  and  Schiller. 

If  there  were  any  need  to  refute  the  criticism   that 
Brahms  lacked  in  melodic  invention,  the  figures  alone 
would  be  sufficient.     To  publish  more  than 
two  hundred  songs,  which  arc  recognised  the  Great 

world  over  as  serious  and  successful  settings  of  Number  of 
the  texts  chosen,  is  in  itself  ample  guaranty  Songs 

of  the  melodic  fertility  of  the  composer.    Un- 
like Schubert's  songs,  which  were  largely  improvisations — 
he  wrote  as  many  as  eight  in  a  single  day — Brahms'  were 
carefully  constructed  with  utmost  fidelity  to  the  text. 

Among  the  best  known  of  Brahms'  songs  are:  "O 
versenk,"    "Sonett,"    "An    ein    Aeolsharfe,"   "Maria's 
Kirchgang,"  "Wie  bist  du,  meine  Konigen," 
"  Ruhe,     Siisse-Liebchen,"    ''Von    ewiger  Best 

Liebe,"  "  Mainacht,"  "  Botschaft,"  "  Wiegen-  known 

lied"    (the    well-known   lullaby),    "Perlen-  Songs 

schnur,"  "O  komme,  holde  Sommernacht," 
"  Damm'rung  senkte  sich  von  Oben,"  "  Regenlied," 
" Erinnerung,"  "Meine  Liebe  ist  Griin,"  "Das  liebsten 
Schwur,"  "Minnelied,"  "  Vergebliches  Standchen," 
"Therese,"  "  Sapphische  Ode,"  "Wir  wandelten,  wir 
zwei  zusammen." 

Of  the  duets  and  quartets  the  best  known  are:  "Die 
Meere,"  "  Die  Nonne  und  der  Ritter,"  "  Die  Schwestern," 
"Die  Boten  der  Liebe,"  "  Hiit  du  dich,"  "Edward," 
"  So  lass  uns  wandern,"  "  Der  Gang  zum  Liebchen,"  "  Ich 
schwing  mein  Horn  ins  Jammerthal,"  "Der  Abend." 
I  129 



In    the  field   of  choral    composition    Brahms  was  a 
giant.       His  style  is  sometimes  almost  reminiscent  of 
Palestrina;    then,  again,  in  its   polyphonic 
Choral         treatment,  with   its   canons   and  fugues,   it 
Works  suggests    Bach ;    and  yet,   again,   he  writes 

with  the  simplicity  of  the  German  folk-song 
singer.  Many  of  his  smaller  sacred  works  were  not 
meant  to  be  sung  in  service,  but  simply  render  in  artistic 
form  the  sentiments  evoked  by  the  words.  The  "  German 
Requiem,"  his  masterpiece,  is  a  song  of  hope,  by  the  ex- 
altation of  its  mood  and  treatment,  rather  than  of  death.' 
In  the  department  of  chamber  music  Brahms  is 
without  a  rival  among  modern  German  composers. 
His  chamber  works  are  the  loftiest  ex- 
Chamber  amples  in  this  form  since  Beethoven.  The 
Music  "String   Sextet"   (Op.    i8)   is   the   greatest 

work  in  that  form  since  Beethoven.  The 
"  Pianoforte  Quintet  "  is  unexcelled  by  any  work  in  that 
form  in  all  the  literature  of  music. 

His  activities  as  a  composer  covered  practically  every 

field  except  opera,which  he  never  attempted. 

No  Ground  Hence  it  is  evident  that  the  very  bitter  con- 

for  Com-       troversy  which  raged  for  many  years  between 

parisonwith\\\Q.   so-called    Brahmsites   and  Wagnerites 

Wagner        was  entirely  without  reason,  as  the  fields  of 

activity  of  the  two  masters  were  in  no  sense 

similar,  and  do  not  admit  of  comparison. 

His  final  rating  among  the  Olympian  gods  of  music 

'  Like  its  composer,   it  is  essentially  German  in  spirit ;    there 
exists  no  other  Requiem  that  is  so  thoroughly  German  as  lirahms'. 


The   Musician 

is  entirely  creditable  to  Brahms.  Famous  critics  speak 
of  him  as  "  Unrivalled  among  his  contem- 
poraries in  choral  and  chamber  music,"  Final 
"The  greatest  German  musician  after  Wag-  Rating 
ner,"  and  in  other  equally  flattering  terms. 
Von  Billow  considered  him  one  of  the  three  immortal  B's 
— Bach  and  Beethoven  being  the  other  two — announc- 
ing as  his  musical  creed  :  "  I  believe  in  Bach  the  Father, 
Beethoven  the  Son,  and  Brahms  the  Holy  Ghost  of  music." 

Tschaikowsky,  on  the  other  hand,  never  became  a 
Brahmsite.  In  187 1  he  wrote:  "Brahms  has  not  ful- 
filled the  obligations  which  Schumann  laid 
upon  him."'  In  1878  he  heard  some  new  Tschai- 
work  by  Brahms,  and  said  the  enthusiasm  kowsky 
it  aroused   among    German   critics  was   in-  not  a 

comprehensible  to  him.  Tschaikowsky  Brahmsite 
esteemed  him  very  highly  for  his  serious- 
ness and  sincerity,  and  his  contempt  for  superficial 
success,  but  had  not  much  sympathy  with  his  music, 
finding  it  cold  and  dry.  Even  after  repeatedly  playing 
Brahms'  works  the  impression  was  not  much  modified. 
"I  deeply  revere "  (he  writes)  "  the  artistic  personality 
of  Brahms.  I  bow  to  the  actual  purity  of  his  musical 
tendencies,  and  admire  his  firm  and  proud  renuncia- 
tion of  all  tricks    .    .    .   but  I  do  not  care  for  his  music." 

Nevertheless  he  sought  an  "  intimate  acquaintance 
with  the  very  attractive  personality  of  Brahms,"  and  on 
December  26,   1887,  they  met  at  the  house  of  Brodsky, 

■  If  he  had  nol  done  so,  Schumann's  article  would  never  have 
become  famous. 




the  violinist,  where  Brahms  was  rehearsing  the  Piano- 
forte Trio  (Op.  loo).  Tschaikowsky  writes 
But  liked  of  him  as  follows :  '  He  is  an  unusually 
Brahms  pleasing  and  attractive  man,  and  all  who  have 
come  in  contact  with  him  are  inspired  by 
warm  affection  and  devotion.  He  possesses  a  rare  and 
pleasing  modesty  ...  A  rather  short  man,  suggests 
a  sort  of  amplitude,  and  possesses  a  very  sympathetic 
appearance  ...  A  certain  softness  of  outline,  pleasing 
curves,  rather  long  and  slightly  grizzled  hair,  kind  grey  (!) 
eyes,  and  thick  beard  freely  sprinkled  with  white.  His 
manner  is  very  simple,  free  from  vanity,  his  humour 
jovial,  and  the  few  hours  spent  in  his  society  left  a  very 
agreeable  recollection  .  ,  .  Like  all  my  Russian  musical 
friends,  without  exception,  I  only  respected  in  Brahms  an 
honourable,  energetic  musician  of  strong  convictions  ;  but 
in  spite  of  all  efforts  to  the  contrary,  I  never  could  and 
never  can  admire  his  music.  There  is  something  dry, 
cold,  vague  and  nebulous,  repellent  to  Russian 
hearts.  From  our  Russian  point  of  view  Brahms 
does  not  possess  melodic  invention  .  .  .  not 
weak  or  unremarkable.  His  style  is  always 
Brahms^      elevated." 

Attitude  Brahms  in  his  turn  was  too  sincere  to  pre- 

toward  tend  to  any  appreciation  of  Tschaikowsky's 
Tschai-  works.  He  went  especially  to  Hamburg  to 
kowsky  hear  Tschaikowsky's  Fifth  Symphony,  and 
after  the  concert  invited  him  to  dinner.  After 
Brahms  had  entertained  him  most  hospitably,  he  confided 

The  Musician 

to  Tschaikowsky  with  quiet  sincerity  that  he  didn't  like  the 
symphony  at  all.  He  spoke  so  simply  that  Tschaikowsky 
didn't  feel  at  all  hurt,  but  was  encouraged  to  retort  in  kind. 
They  parted  excellent  friends,  but  never  met  again. 

DvoMk  used  to  speak  with  tears  in  his  eyes  of  the 
warm  interest  Brahms  showed  in  him  at  a  time  when  his 
(Dvorak's)  compositions  found  neither  pub- 
lishers nor  performers,  and  of  the  powerful  Dvorak's 
support  Brahms  gave  him  and  what  energy  Gratitude 
he  exhibited  in  sounding  the  depths  of  the 
unknown  genius  of  his  Slavonic  brother  in  art.  Not 
that  Brahms  entirely  sympathised  with  all  that  Dvorak 
did  or  tried  to  do,  but  he  felt  that  here  was  an  original 
mind  that  deserved  encouragement. 

The  appreciation  and  diffusion  of  his  works  is  steadily 
increasing.  For  many  years  the  seat  of  the  greatest 
Brahms  cult  was  in  Hamburg,  partly  be- 
cause he  was  born  there,  and  partly  because  Growth  in 
of  the  anti-Wagner  feeling  there.  Since  the  Poptdarity 
appearance  of  the  "  German  Requiem  "  in 
1868  every  new  work  published  by  Brahms  became  an 
event  in  the  musical  life  of  Germany,  ind  even  in 
England  and  America,  where  most  of  his  greatest  works 
have  been  given.  The  Hungarian  Dances  are  one  of 
the  most  popular  compositions  that  the  orchestral  re- 
pertoire contains.  While  the  themes  are  not  Brahms' 
own,  it  is  to  his  briUiant  handling  that  they  owe  their 
vogue;  he  and  Liszt  may  be  said  to  have  opened  the 
music  of  Hungary  to  the  world. 



It  might  be  interesting  to  see  what  the  rabid  anti- 
Brahmsites  have  to  say  about  our  subject.  It  is,  perhaps, 
better  not  to  draw  from  German  sources,  for 
Afiti-  there  the  strife  was  fiercest  and  the  feeling 

Brahmsiie  most  unreasoningly  bitter.  But  two  choice 
Verdict  bits  are  here  appended,  one  from  an  English, 
and  another  from  an  American  source. 

J.  F.  Runciman,  an  English  critic,  has  this  to  say : — 

"  He  had  not  the  intellect  of  an  antelope,"  yet  in  the 
next  breath  he  speaks  highly  of  Brahms'  songs  and 
many  other  works.  Then  he  goes  on  to 
J.  F.  say :  "  He  had  not  a  great  matter  to  utter. 

Ruticiman  If  ever  a  musician  was  born  a  happy,  care- 
less, romanticist,  that  musician  was  Brahms  " 
...  "  He  assumed  the  pose  and  manner  of  a  master 
telling  us  great  things,  and  talked  like  a  pompous  duflfer. 
Brahms  was  not  cast  in  the  big  mould,  and  he  spent  a 
good  deal  of  his  later  time  in  pitying  himself  "  (!!)... 
"  Much  of  Brahms'  music  is  bad  and  ugly  music,  dead 
music  ;  it  is  counterfeit,  and  not  the  true  and  perfect 
image  of  life  indeed,  and  it  should  be  buried  or  cre- 
mated at  the  earliest  opportunity  .  .  ."  "  But  much  of 
it  is  wonderfully  beautiful.  All  his  music  is  irreproach- 
able from  the  technical  point  of  view.  Brahms  is  cer- 
tainly with  Bach,  Mozart  and  Wagner  in  point  of 
musicianship ;  in  fact,  these  four  might  be  called  the 
greatest  masters  of  sheer  music  who  have  ever  lived." 
(Where  do  Beethoven  or  one  or  two  others  come  in  ?) 

H.  T.  Finck,  an  American  critic  and  a  pronounced 

The  Musician 

Wagnerite,    calls    Brahms'    music    "musical   small-talk, 

meaningless  twaddle,"  and  declares  Brahms 

to   be    "  a    great    dressmaker  —  a   musical  H.  T. 

Worth,"  and  that   he   owes   his  vogue   not  Finck 

to  any  virtue  of  his  own,  but  solely  to  the 

fact   that  the  anti-Wagnerites    pitched  on  him  as  their 

champion.      However,  even   he  declares  that  Brahms' 

"  technical   virtuosity    puts   him    on    a   level    with    the 

greatest  masters." 

If  genius  is  an  "infinite  capacity  for  taking  pains," 
then  assuredly  Brahms  is  one  of  the  very  greatest  among 
all  the  master  musicians.     Certainly  none  of 
the  great  composers  was  more  consistently  Con- 

painstaking    in     the    development    of    his        sistently 
material.      Even   in   his   largest  works   the         Pains- 
attention  to  detail  is  amazing ;  his  mastery  taking 

of  detail  is  unsurpassed.  A  theme  was  to 
him  what  the  name  indicates,  a  subject  which  was  to  be 
worked  out,  shown  in  all  its  lights ;  developed  from  all 
sides  and  in  all  directions  so  far  as  logically  possible ; 
not  simply  to  be  stated  and  reiterated  a  few  times  and 
then  left  for  an  entirely  new  idea. 

Brahms  was  eminently  the  logician  among  musicians ; 
a  theme  was  useful  to  him  only  so  far  as  it 
could  become  the  basis  of  a  logically-thought-        Musical 
out  work  of  art.       Rich    in   inspiration,  he       Logician 
yet   subjected   his    ideas   to    such    severely 
rigorous    discipline  that,  by  the  time  the  finished  pro- 



duct  left  his  hands,  there  remained  nothing  but  the 
aesthetic,  some  times  almost  ethereal,  work  of  art,  with- 
out a  trace  of  the  cheap  or  commonplace. 

No  composer  wrote  and  thought  habitually  on  a  higher 
plane.     Therein  lay  both  his  strength  and  his  weakness. 

Undoubtedly  there  is  not  the  same  appeal  to 
No  Appeal  the  popular  mind  in  his  works  that  one  finds 
to  the  in    Schubert,    who   is   so  intensely   human 

Popular  that  he  frequently  verges  on  the  banal,  or  in 
Mind  Haydn  or  Mendelssohn,  whose  geniality  kept 

them  ever  on  good  terms  with  their  fellow- 
men,  or  even  in  Wagner,  whose  whole  life  was  devoted 
to  the  portrayal  of  the  more  fervid  emotions.  Not 
that  Brahms  is  not  human  or  genial  or  fervid,  but  these 
qualities  are  not  so  obvious  in  him  as  in  these  others. 
Undoubtedly  the  appreciation  of  Brahms  was  at  first, 
and  still  to  a  great  measure  remains,  a  matter  of  the 
chosen  few,  the  inner  circle  of  the  musically  elect  who 
can  comprehend  his  message.  For  '0/  voXkoi  he  has  no 
message,  nor,  though  he  was  at  heart  a  great  lover  of 
his  kind,  did  he  ever  attempt  to  win  their  suffrages. 
The  highest  ideal  of  artistic  excellence  was  ever  his 
goal,  and  under  no  consideration  would  he  make  any 
concessions  to  popular  taste.  Not  that  he  never  tried 
to  meet  the  people  half-way ;  on  the  contrary,  his  devo- 
tion to  folk-music  is  sufificient  refutation  of  any  such 
charge.  Indeed,  there  is  often  a  combination  of 
popular  elements  with  the  most  artistic  and  compli- 
cated forms  which  characterise  much  of  Brahms'  music. 


'V     g 

The   Musician 

But  even  when  writing  for  the  people,  or  using  their  songs 
as  the  basis  for  his  compositions,  the  highest  artistic  treat- 
ment was  accorded  them  ;  so  that,  though  he  might,  for 
reasons  of  his  own,  make  use  of  the  most  commonplace 
themes,  they  passed  through  a  process  of  treatment  that 
transmuted  them  into  works  of  art  of  the  highest 

There  is  only  one  way  in  which  such  a  master  can 
ever  become  widely  appreciated,  and  that  is  by  edu- 
cating audiences  up  to  his  level.  The 
mountain  will  not  come  to  Mahomet,  so  Educate 
Mahomet  must  perforce  go  to  the  mountain.  Audie  ices 
Here  we  have  a  master  whose  message  is  up  to 

still  largely  in  the  future.  The  past  could  Brahms 
not  comprehend  him ;  the  present  is  striving 
hard  to  reach  his  level ;  it  remains  to  the  future  to  in- 
terpret his  message  to  the  world.  That  his  works  are 
at  last  beginning  to  be  understood  is  best  attested  by 
the  fact  that  the  "  German  Requiem,"  his  masterpiece, 
which  was  given  last  season  (1903-1904)  in  New  York, 
is  to  be  repeated  again  during  the  season  of  1904- 1905. 

The  style  of  Brahms  is  first  and  always  polyphonic ; 
Bach  is  his  model  as  regards  technical  treatment  of  his 
material,  Beethoven  as  regards  form,  and,  to 
a  certain  extent,  Schumann  and  Schubert  Uncompro- 
as  regards  musical  content.  In  his  works,  misi?igly 
especially  earlier  in  his  career,  there  was  Classical 
often  a  romantic  note,  a  new  peculiar  mode 
of  expression,  full  of  poetic  sentiment,  but  as  regards 




form  and  development,  his  is  always  an  uncompromis- 
ingly classical  manner.  For  "programme  music"  and 
the  "free"  form  which  has  resulted  therefrom,  he  had 
no  use  ;  caprice  had  no  place  in  his  art  views.  Art  was 
too  sacred  a  matter  with  him  for  any  blatant  realism  or 
personal  whim,  or  foolish  attempt  at  story-telling.  That 
there  is  no  virtue  in  dramatic  music  he  would  have  been 
the  last  to  contend,  for  he  wrote  reams  of  it  himself; 
but  it  is  dramatic  in  an  abstract  way,  and  makes  no 
attempt  to  tell  or  illustrate  a  story ;  it  simply  portrays 
emotions  by  means  of  musical  tones,  which  is  all  that 
music  can  do  or  has  any  right  to  try  to  do. 

As  for  the  details  of  composition,  he  made  use  of  very 
few  technical  methods  that  were  not  generally  known 
and  accepted  by  composers ;  only  his  accent 
Details  of  upon  certain  particular  styles  of  treatment 
Treatment  gave  his  works  a  decidedly  individual  char- 
acter. All  the  resources  of  harmonic  colour, 
of  contrapuntal  development  and  of  rhythmic  accent  were 
at  his  command,  and  he  used  them  all  like  the  consum- 
mate master  that  he  was.  Transposition,  modulation, 
inversion,  augmentation,  diminution — all  the  familiar 
devices  of  thematic  development  were  well-known  to  him 
and  furnished  means  for  the  expression  of  his  genius. 
Fugues  and  double  fugues  flowed  from  his  pen  with 
utmost  facility,  the  canon  was  a  commonplace — in  a 
word,  all  the  wealth  of  polyphonic  material  and  sug- 
gestion which  the  mediaeval  monks  had  evolved  after 
centuries  of  labour  were  by  him  translated  into  modern 


The   Musician 

terms  and  utilised  in  the  production  of  art  works  which 
mark  the  pinnacle  of  human  achievement  along  their 
particular  lines. 

This  is  not  to  say  that  Brahms  is  the  greatest  of  all 
composers  ;  the  very  elements  of  his  strength  would 
make  that  impossible ;  for  of  sensuous  beauty,  which 
is  after  all  perhaps  the  chief  charm  of  music,  there  is  too 
often  not  enough.  Any  artist  who  elevates  intellect 
over  emotion  and  the  humanities  has  by 
that  sign  made  it  impossible  for  himself  to  Not  the 
achieve  the  very  highest  rank,  for  the  Greatest 
greatest  of  all  art  must  necessarily  be  Musidafi 
emotion  regulated  by  intellect,  not  intellect 
emotionalised.  Therefore,  while  Brahms  has  given  us 
much  music  that  is  beautiful,  considerable  that  is  sur- 
passingly beautiful,  and  none  that  is  cheap  or  weak, 
there  is  too  much  of  the  philosopher  and  scholar  about 
much  of  his  work  to  make  him  ever  the  musical  idol. 
But  for  just  that  reason  he  will  ever  be  a  source  of 
inspiration,  a  model  for  succeeding  generations  of 

Perhaps  the  most  striking  characteristic,  apart  from 
his  conscientious  intellectuality,  is  his  modernity.  Par- 
taking more  or  less  of  the  characteristics  of 
many  of  the  masters  who  went  before  him  Brahms 
— Bach,  Beethoven,  Schumann  and  Schu-  and  Other 
bert  have  already  been  mentioned,  while  in  Composers 
the  "  Triumphlied'^  one  sees  traces  of  the 
influence   of    Handel ;    in    the    Second    Symphony   a 




Mozartean  character ;  in  the  Serenades  a  Haydnesque 
clearness  of  structure  ;  and  in  the  Scherzos  a  humour  as 
naive  as  Haydn's,  though  expressed  in  more  modern 
language — yet  there  is  in  the  musical  style  and  content 
no  harking  back  to  a  former  period ;  everything  is 
modern  and  up-to-date  (though  occasionally  he  fell  into 
the  Palestrina  manner  in  his  vocal  compositions).  His 
harmonic  scheme  is  the  most  radical  to  be  found  among 
all  composers,  Richard  Strauss  alone  excepted,  and  his 
rhythmic  innovations  are  most  daring — no  other  com- 
poser has  introduced  so  many — his  melodies  are  modern 
in  the  best  sense  of  the  term.  Of  these  Niecks  says : 
"  Brahms'  melody  is  distinguished  by  purity,  simplicity, 
naturalness  and  grace." 

As  compared  with  his  contemporaries,  he  stands  head 
and  shoulders  above  them  all,  with  the  single  exception 

of  Wagner.  With  Wagner  there  is  no  just 
Brahms  basis  of  comparison.  Brahms  never  entered 
and  His  the  field  of  dramatic  composition,  and 
Contem-  Wagner,  after  his  student  days,  never 
poraries        emerged  from  it.     What  either  would  have 

done  in  the  other's  field  it  is  useless  to 
conjecture.  Unquestionably,  there  is  a  depth  of  passion 
and  a  wealth  of  colour  about  the  works  of  the  Bayreuth 
master  that  surpass  probably  anything  the  Viennese 
has  done.  In  these  and  other  directions  there  may 
have  been  others  of  Brahms'  contemporaries  who  have 
equalled  or  surpassed  him  in  some  single  respect ;  but 
for   lofty    idealism,    wealth   of  melodic    invention   and 


The   Musician 

development,  and  consistent  adherence  to  the  highest 
standards,  none  could  equal  him.  Whether  or  not  he 
would  have  unbent  more  or  less  had  he  entered  the 
dramatic  arena  it  is  hard  to  say.  No  doubt  environment 
is  a  potent  factor  in  the  shaping  of  art  works,  as  well  as 
of  human  lives  ;  and  the  exigencies  of  a  stage  production 
often  necessitate  radical  concessions  upon  the  part  of  the 
composer.  That  Brahms  had  the  highest  admiration  for 
Wagner  in  many  respects,  and  for  Verdi,  there  is  no  ques- 
tion. That  this  admiration  was  not  mutual,  at  least  so 
far  as  Wagner  is  concerned,  is  much  to  be  regretted. 

Tschaikowsky  and  the  Russian  school  made  little 
appeal  to  Brahms,  and  he  as  little  to  them.  He  never 
painted  with  the  full  brush ;  colour,  while 
he  never  lacked  for  it,  was  still  a  secondary  Brahms  as 
consideration  with  him,  and  the  superabund-  Colourist 
ance  of  it  which  characterised  the  works  of 
the  Russians  and  the  "  New  Germans  "  seemed  to  him 
crude  and  inartistic.  His  works  are  surcharged  with 
emotion,  but  it  is  of  a  deeper,  more  intense  nature, 
rather  than  superficial  or  obvious. 

Brahms'  chief  musical  sin  in  the  eyes  of  the  world  is 
his  uncompromising  earnestness,  his  unswerving  loyalty 
to  his  ideals.  A  little  elasticity  of  con- 
science, relaxation  of  vigilance,  and  lowering  His  Chief 
of  standards,  and  the  people  would  have  Musical 
felt  more  al   home;    and  possibly    Brahms  Sin 

would  have  been  heralded  far  and  wide  as 
the  Great  Master  upon  whom  the  mantle  of  Beethoven 




had  fallen.  As  Dr  Louis  Ehlert  says  ;  "  Brahms  does  not 
stand  before  us  like  Mozart  or  Schubert,  in  whose  eyes 
we  seem  to  look,  whose  hands  we  seem  to  press.  Two 
atmospheres  lie  between  him  and  us.  Twilight  sur- 
rounds him,  his  heights  melt  in  the  distance ;  we  are  at 
once  allured  and  repelled." 

As   a   symphonist  Brahms  lived    up  to  the   highest 
traditions  of  the  art.     Original  in  details  of  treatment, 
he  accepted  the  general  form  of  the  Sym- 
The  phony   as   developed   by  Beethoven.     The 

Symphonies  First  Symphony  opens  with  an  impressive 
sostenuto  Introduction ;  the  others  begin  at 
once  with  the  principal  subject  of  the  Allegro.  His  one 
important  innovation  in  this  field  was  the  Passacaglia  in 
the  Fourth  Symphony,  which  was  an  entirely  new  idea 
for  the  closing  movement  of  a  symphony.  He  was 
also  the  creator  of  the  Variation  cycle  as  a  separate 
orchestral  form  ;  and  the  entire  metamorphosis  which 
the  Variation  form  underwent  in  his  hands  is  one  of 
his  greatest  contributions  to  the  progress  of  Musical 

His  choral  works,  forming  a  most  important  part  of 
the  whole  body  of  his  compositions,  are  marked  by  a 
dignity  and  musicianship  that  are  well-nigh 
The  Choral  unsurpassed.  Often  intensely  difficult,  de- 
Works  manding  both  mental  and  physical  endur- 
ance and  thorough  preparation,  they  rise  to 
ideal  heights  that  have  been  unapproached  by  any  of  his 
contemporaries,  and  scarcely  surpassed  by  any  of  the 


The   Musician 

older  masters.  There  are  many  touches  which  exhibit 
originahty  of  the  highest  order,  such  as  the  repetition  in 
"The  Song  of  Destiny"  of  the  orchestral  introduction 
at  the  end  of  the  composition,  thus  relieving  the  sombre- 
ness  of  the  poem,  and  leaving  a  hopeful  impression  at 
the  end.  The  "  German  Requiem"  is  undoubtedly  the 
greatest  achievement  of  modern  sacred  music  in  Germany, 
if  not  in  the  world. 

In  chamber  music  his  mastership  is  perhaps  most 
complete ;  here  he  is  the  peer  of  the  greatest.  His 
name  will  go  down  in  the  history  of  chamber 
music  on  an  equality  with  Beethoven's.  His  Cha7nber 
treatment  of  the  horn  and  clarionet  was  Music,  Con- 
especially  successful  \  while  in  the  Violin  certos  and 
Concerto  (Op.  77)  the  subject  of  the  slow  Sonatas 
movement  is  an  example  of  the  composer's 
invention  at  its  greatest  height;  indeed,  it  would  be 
difificult  to  match  the  entire  movement  for  melodious 
beauty.  His  instrumental  works,  as  a  whole,  are  marked 
by  the  use  of  excellent  thematic  material,  rich,  ingeni- 
ous development,  always  coherent  and  logical,  virility, 
distinct  contrasts  and  wonderful  climaxes — the  working- 
out  sections  being  particularly  interesting  and  elaborate. 
The  concertos  and  sonatas  for  various  instruments  are 
of  surpassing  merit,  though  as  a  rule  none  but  artists  of 
established  reputation  make  use  of  them,  if  for  no  other 
reason  than  that  he  sacrificed  effect  to  artistic  perfec- 
tion. For  there  is  no  display  of  virtuoso  tricks,  no 
tinsel,    no    padding  —  all    is    solid   tissue,    demanding 




sterling  musicianship  and,  in  most  cases,  enormous 
technique — with  no  appeal  to  the  gallery  to  call  forth 
salvos  of  applause.  But  for  musical  worth  and  expres- 
siveness, they  are  well  worth  a  dozen  of  the  more 
brilliant,  applause-evoking  concert  pieces. 

The  piano  plays  a  most  important  part  in  the  list  of 
Brahms'  works,  not  only  as  a  solo  instrument,  but  in 

conjunction  with  other  instruments  or  the 
Pianoforte  human  voice.  Himself  possessed  of  a  most 
Works         remarkable  technique,   he  makes   demands 

upon  his  pianists  that  frequently  none  but 
a  virtuoso  of  the  highest  rank  can  satisfy.  The  left 
hand  particularly  plays  a  much  more  important  part 
with  him  than  with  most  others.  There  are  no  easy 
Brahms  piano  pieces — none  for  dilletanti.  He  demands 
the  best  efforts  of  earnest  musicians  for  his  adequate 
comprehension  and  rendition.  Sonata  No.  i  in  C  has 
for  the  principal  subject  of  the  first  movement  almost  the 
same  theme  as  Beethoven's  in  B  fiat  (Op.  io6) ;  but  the 
treatment  is  astonishingly  original.  In  the  Second  Sonata 
much  originality  of  design  is  shown  by  using  the  same  sub- 
ject for  the  slow  movement  and  the  Scherzo,and  by  the 
repetition  of  the  Introduction  to  the  Finale  at  its  close. 

Much  praise  has  been  bestowed  upon  the  songs,  and 
they  deserve  all  they  have  received,  and  more.     "  In  the 

'  Nine  Songs  by  Platen  and  Daumer '  and 
Songs  the    '  Magelone    Lieder '     is    reached    the 

highest  point  in  the  development  of  the 
German  Lied."     Unusually  meritorious  from  a  literary 


The  Musician 

point  of  view — no  other  composer  has  chosen  so  many 
good  poems  for  settings  —  the  musical  treatment  is 
always  faithful  to  the  text,  without  being  slavishly  bound 
to  its  every  idiosyncrasy.  Thoroughly  vocal,  melodic- 
ally  perfect,  his  songs,  like  his  other  works,  are  in  no 
sense  of  the  word  show-pieces.  Brahms  surpasses 
Franz,  the  most  formidable  of  his  contemporaries,  in 
that  he  has  liberated  the  melody  from  the  thraldom  of 
the  traditional  four-measure  formation  of  periods.  The 
accompaniments  are  as  carefully  thought  out  as  the 
songs  themselves,  moving  independently,  as  a  rule,  and 
adding  immensely  to  the  interest  of  the  compositions — 
but  adding  also  to  the  difficulty  in  rendition. 

It  is  much  to  be  regretted,  from  the  standpoint  of  the 
popularity  of  his  works,  that  Brahms  did  not  concern 
himself  more  with  the  problem  of  lessening 
the  technical  difficulties  in  his  compositions.  Composi- 
Unquestionably  this  has  been,  and  will  always  tions  too 
remain,  an  important  obstacle  in  the  way  of  Difficult 
their  general  appreciation.  But  the  techni- 
cal ability  of  artists  is  ever  increasing,  so  that  we  may 
hope  for  the  least  possible  trouble  from  this  source. 

To  sum  up :  Brahms  possessed  creative  ability  of  the 
highest  order,  an  unusually  keen  intellect,  wide  culture, 
and  absolute  mastery  of  technical  material. 
Add  to  this  a  sanity  of  mind  and  breadth      Summing 
of    view,    which    have    unfortunately    been  up 

unusual    among    great    musicians,  and   we 
have  a  personality  both  uncommon  and  commanding. 
K  145 


The  death,  first  of  Wagner,  and  later  of  Brahms,  has 
removed  from  the  arena  both  the  men  about  whom 
centered  a  long  and  useless  warfare  ;  and  time 
Future  of  is  gradually  assigning  to  each  his  proper  place 
Music  in  the  musical  Pantheon.     Just  what  will 

be  the  direction  along  which  musical  taste 
will  progress  in  the  next  century  it  is  hard  to  prophesy; 
but,  judging  from  present  tendencies,  the  influence  of 
Brahms  upon  future  composers  bids  fair  to  rival  Wag- 
ner's, especially  as  regards  musical  structure.  At  any 
rate,  compared  with  the  masters  of  the  Past,  it  seems  as 
though  Von  Biilow  had  been  not  far  wrong  in  ranking 
Brahms  with  Bach  and  Beethoven,  thereby  completing 
the  Trinity  of  Musical  Immortals. 

A  quotation  in  closing,  and  then  the  full  stop  :  "  Those 
who  are  indifferent  to  the  spiritual  contents  and  signifi- 
cance in  musical  forms  sometimes  find  Brahms  dull  and 
uninteresting,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  these  forms  are 
modelled  with  the  utmost  care  and  represent  the  pro- 
foundest  knowledge  of  the  art.  Brahms,  however,  has  a 
royal  recompense.  He  is  generally  esteemed  by  musi- 
cians as  the  Titan  of  living  composers  "  (this  was  written 
in  1895)  "in  the  mastery  of  the  technique  of  composition, 
and  in  the  depth,  sincerity  and  originality  of  his  genius 
— the  reigning  successor  in  the  line  of  Bach  and  Beet- 
hoven, though  his  field,  in  the  main,  was  to  be  different 
from  theirs." 



Appendix  A 


Most  of  the  compositions  of  Brahms  are  still  to  be  found  in 
the  original  editions,  the  great  majority,  especially  those  of 
the  latter  part  of  his  life,  being  published  by  the  house  of 
Simrock,  in  Berlin.  Rieter-Biedermann  has  also  published 
many  important  works,  including  the  "  German  Requiem," 
while  a  few  may  be  found  upon  the  lists  of  Spina  and  of 
Peters,  and  many  of  the  earliest  upon  the  catalogue  of 
Breitkopf  &  Hiirtel.  Of  course  there  have  been  reprints, 
the  most  important  being  a  complete  de  luxe  edition  of  the 
Piano  Works,  Violin  Sonatas,  Songs  and  Duets,  and 
Chamber  Music,  by  the  house  of  Schirmer,  New  York, 
which  has  just  appeared  (1904). 

Long  before  any  other  of  Brahms'  works  were  assimilated 
by  the  public,  the  "Lullaby"  (Op.  49,  No.  4)  had  found  its 
way  in  different  forms — as  solo,  male  or  female  chorus,  violin 
solo,  among  others — into  every  corner  of  the  land,  while, 
wherever  an  orchestra  of  sufficient  ability  could  be  found,  the 
"  Hungarian  Dances  "  proved  the  entering  wedge  for  his 
instrumental  compositions.  By  this  time  nearly  all  his  instru- 
mental works  and  songs  have  become  well  known,  and  the 
Brahms  cult  is  every  day  gathering  strength.  In  America 
especially  the  appreciation  of  his  works  is  growing  by  leaps 
and  bounds,  and  a  considerable  and  important  Brahms 
literature  is  springing  up. 

The  complete  list  of  Brahms'  works  is  as  follows  : — 

II.  "Serenade  for  Full  Orchestra"  in  D. 

Allegro  molto  —Scherzo  {allegro  noft  troppo)—  Adagio 



non    troppo — Two    Minuets — Scherzo   {allegro) — 
Rondo  {allegro). 

1 6.  "  Serenade  for  Small  Orchestra  "  (without  Violins)  in  A. 

Allegro    moderato — Scherzo   {vivace) — Adagio    non 

troppo — Quasi  menuetto — Rondo  {allegro). 
(This  Serenade  was  revised  and  republished  in  1875.) 
56A.  "  Variations  on  a  Theme  by  Haydn  "  (eight  in  number). 
68.  "First  Symphony  for  Full  Orchestra"  in  C  minor. 

Un  poco  sostenuto,  allegro — Andante  sostenuto — Un 
poco  allegretto  e  grazioso — Finale  {adagio,  allegro 
non  troppo  ma  con  brio). 
73.  "Second  Symphony  for  Full  Orchestra"  in  D. 

Allegro  non  troppo — Adagio  non  troppo — Allegretto 
grazioso  {quasi  atidantino) — Allegro  con  spirito. 

80.  "Academic  Festival  Overture"  for  Full  Orchestra. 

81.  "Tragic  Overture"  for  Full  Orchestra. 

go.  "  Third  Symphony  for  Full  Orchestra  "  in  F. 

Allegro  con  brio — Andante — Allegretto — Allegro. 
98.  "  Fourth  Symphony  for  Full  Orchestra"  in  E  minor. 

Allegro  non    troppo — Andante    moderato — Allegro 
giocoso — Allegro    energico   e   passionato  {passa- 
"  Hungarian  Dances"  (arranged  by  Brahms). 

Vocal— Choral. 

12.  "Ave    Maria,"    for    Female    Chorus,    Orchestra   and 


13.  "  Funeral    Hymn,"    for     Mixed     Chorus    and    Wind 


17.  "Part  Songs  for  Female  Chorus,"  with  Two  Horns 

and  Harp — 
No.  I.  "  Es  tont  ein  voller  Harfenklang"  (I  hear  a 
harp),       .....        Ruperti. 
„    2.  "  Song"  from  Shakespear^s  "  Twelfth  Night." 
,,    3.  "  Der  Gartner"  (Greetings) 

Von  Eichendorff. 
„    4.  "  Gesang  aus  FingaV  (Song  from  Fingal) 

22.  "  Marienlieder,"  for  Four-part  Mixed  Chorus — 

Appendix  A 

Opus  Part  I. 

No.  I.  "DerenglischeGruss"(Theangel'sgreeting). 
„  2.  "  Maria's  Kirchgang"  (Mary  goes  to  church). 
„    3.  "Maria's  Wallfahrt"  (Mary's  pilgrimage). 

Part  2. 
„    4.  "Der  Jager"  (The  hunter). 
„    5,  "  Ruf  zur  Maria"  (Mary's  calling). 
„    6.  "Magdalena." 
„    7.  "Maria's  Lob"  (Mary's  praise). 
27.  "13th    Psalm,"   for   Three-part    Female    Chorus    and 
Organ  (or  Piano). 

29.  "  Two  Motets  "  for  Five-part  Mixed  Chorus,  a  capclla  — 

No.  I.  Chorale,  "  Es  ist  das  Heil  uns  kommen  her" 
(To  us  salvation  now  is  come),  and  Fugue. 
„    2.  "  Schaffe    in    mir,    Gott,   ein    reines    Herz" 
(Create  in  me  a  clean  heart,  O  God). 

30.  "  Sacred    Song   by    Paul    Flemming,"   for    Four-part 

Mixed  Chorus  with  Organ  or  Piano  ("  Lass  dich 
nur  nichts  dauern"). 

31.  "Three  Quartets  for  Solo  Voices"  (S.,  A.,  T.,  B.),  with 

Piano — 
No.  I.  "Wechsellied    zum    Tanze "   (Invitation    to 
the  dance)        ....  Goethe. 

„    2.  "  Neckereien  "  (Raillery)    .     Old  Moravian. 
„    3.  "  Der     Gang     zum      Liebchen "     (Lover's 
journey)   .....    Bohemian. 
37.  "  Three    Sacred    Choruses "    for    Female   Voices,    a 
capella — 
No.  I.  "Obone  Jesu." 
,,    2.  "Adoremus  te." 
„    3.  "  Regina  coeli." 
41.  "Five    Songs"   (Soldatenlieder)    for    Four-part   Male 
Chorus,  a  capclla — 
No.  I.  "  Ich  schwing  mein  Horn  ins  Jammerthal" 
(I  wind  my  horn  in  this  vale  of  tears) 

Old  German. 
(This  song  is  also  published  for  solo  voice.) 
„    2.  "  Freiwillige  her  !  "  (Volunteers  advance) 

Carl  Lemikc. 



No.  3.  "  Geleit "  (Escort)    .         .        .  Carl  Lemcke 
„    4.  "  Marschiren"  (Marching)       .  „ 

„    5.  "Gebt  Acht"  (Take  care)         .  „ 

42.  "  Three  Songs  "  for  Six-part  Male  Chorus,  a  capella — 
No.  I.  "  Abendstandchen  "  (Evening  serenade) 

Clemens  Brentano. 

„    2.  "  Vineta " W.  Miiller. 

„    3.  "Darthula's  Grabgesang"  (Darthula's  burial 
song)        .         .  Herder,  after  Ossian. 

44.  "  Twelve  Songs  and  Romances "  for  Female  Chorus, 
a  capella  (Piano  ad  libitum) — 

Part  I. 

No.  I.  "  Minnelied"  (Lovesong)  .    J.  H.  Voss. 

„    2.  "Der  Brautigam  "  (The  bridegroom) 

J.  von  Eichendorff. 
„  3.  "  Barcarolle "  .  .  .  .  Italia7i. 
„    4.  "  Fragen"  (Questions)        .         .  Slavic. 

„    5.  "Die  Mullerin"  (The  millers  maid) 

A.  von  Chaniisso. 
„    6.  "  Die  Nonne"  (The  nun)  .         .  L.  Uhland. 

Part  2. 

„    I.  "Nun  steh'n  die   Rosen"  (Still   stand   the 
(This  and  the  three  following  songs  are  taken 
from  Paul  Heyse's  '''' Jungbrumten") 
„    2.  "  Die  Berge  sind  spitz"  (The  mountains  are 

„    3.  "Am  Wild-bach  die  Weiden"  (By  the  noisy 

brook  the  willows). 
„    4.  "Und  gehst  du  iiber  den  Kirchhof"  (And 

goest  thou  to  the  churchyard). 

„    5.  "  Die  Braut"  (The  bride),  (from  the  Island  of 

Rijgen)     .         •         .         .       With.  Miiller. 

„    6.  "Marznacht"(AMarchnight)  .    L.  Uhland. 

45.  "  German  Requiem,"  for  Soli,  Chorus  and  Orchestra 

(Organ  ad  libitutn). 


Appendix  A 


50.  "  Rinaldo  "  (a  Cantata  by  Goethe),  for  Tenor  Solo,  Male 
Chorus  and  Orchestra. 

53.  "  Rhapsodic"  (Fragment  from  Goethe's  '■'■  Har::reise im 

Winter'"),  for  Alto  Solo,  Male  Chorus  and  Orchestra. 

54.  "  Schicksalslied "  (Song  of  Destiny),  for  Chorus  and 


55.  "Triumphlied"    (Song    of    Triumph),    for   Eight-part 

Chorus  and  Orchestra  (Organ  ad  libit icm). 
62.  "  Seven  Songs  "  for  Mixed  Chorus,  a  capclla— 
No.  I.  "  Rosemaren  "  (Rosemary) 

Knabcn  Wimderbuch  {Childs  Wonder-book). 
„    2.  "Von  alten  Liebesliedern  "  (Before  my  fair 
maid's  window) 
Knabcn  Wundcrbuch  {Child's  Wonder-book). 
„     3.  "  Waldesnacht "  (Forest  gloom) 

Heyse,  '■''  Jungbrunnen^^ 
„     4.  "  Dein  Herzlein  mild"  (Thou  gentle  girl) 

Heyse,  '•'•  Jungbrunnen." 
„     5.  "All    meine    Herzengedanken "    (Where'er 
I  go)       .         .         Heyse,  '■'■  Jimgbrunnen." 
„    6.  "Es  geht  ein  Wehen"  (I  hear  a  sighing) 

Heysc,  '■'■  Jungbrunnen." 

„    7.  "  Vergangen  ist  mir  Gliick  und  Heil"  (Of 

ev'ry  joy  I  am  bereft)       .       Old  German. 

64.  "  Three  Quartets  "  for  Four  Solo  Voices  (S.,  A.,  T.,  B.) 

and  Piano — 

No.   I.  "An  die  Heimath"  (To  our  home) 

C.  O.  Sternau. 
„    2.  "  Der  Abend  "  (Evening)    .       Fr.  Schiller. 
„     3.  "  Fragen  "  (Questions)         .  G.  Fr.  Daumer. 
74.  "Two  Motets  "  for  Mixed  Chorus,  a  capclla — 

No.  I.  "  Warum  ist  das  Licht  gegeben  "  (Wherefore 
is  light  given). 
„    2.  "O    Heiland,   reiss    die    Himmel  auf"    (O 
Saviour,  bid  the  heavens  open). 
82.  "  Nanie  "  (Poem  by  Schiller),  for  Chorus  and  Orchestra 

(Harp  ad  libitum). 
89.  "  Gesang  der  Parzen"  (Song  of  the  Fates),  from  Goethe's 
"  Iphigenia,"  for  Six-part  Chorus  and  Orchestra. 


92.  "  Four  Quartets  "  for  Solo  Voices  (S.,  A.,  T.,  B.)  and 
Piano — 
No.  I.  "O  schone  Nacht"  (O  lovely  night) 

G.  Fr.  Daumer, 
„    2.  "  Spatherbst "  (Late  autumn) 

Hermami  Allmers. 

„    3.  "Abendlied  "  (Evening  song)   .   Fr.  Hebbel. 

„    4.  "  Warum "  (Why)      .         .         .  Goel/ie. 

93A.  "  Six  Songs  and  Romances "  for  Four-part  Chorus, 

a  capella — 

No.  I.  "Derbucklichte  Fiedler  "(The  hump-backed 

fiddler)   .         .         .       Rhenish  Folk-song. 

„    2.  "  Das  Madchen  "  (The  maiden) 

Siegfried  Kapper  {Servian) 
„    3.  "  O  siisser  Mai"  (O'lovely  May) 

L.  Achini  von  Arnim. 
„  4.  "  Fahr'wohl "  (Farewell)  .  .  Fr.  Ritckert. 
„    5.  "  Der  Falke"  (The  falcon) 

S.  Kapper  {Servian). 
„    6.  "  Beherzigung"  (Stout-hearted)       .  Goethe. 
93B.  "Tafellied"  (Dank  der  Damen),  Drinking  Glee,  by 
Jos.  von  Eichendorff,  for  Six-part  Chorus,  a  capella 
(Piano  ad  libitujn). 
103.  "Gipsy  Songs"  for  Four  Voices  (S.,  A.,  T.,  B.)  and 
Piano — 
No.  I.  "He,   Zigeuner,   greife  in  die   Saiten   ein" 
(Ho,  gipsy,  strike  the  chord). 

2.  "Hochgethiirmte  Rimafluth"  (High  tower- 
ing flood). 

3.  "  Wisst  ihr,  war  main  Kindchen  "  (Know  ye, 
was  my  child). 

4.  "  Lieber  Gott,  du  weisst"  (Dear  Lord,  Thou 

5.  "  Brauner  Bursche,  fiihrt  zum  Tanze"  (Ye 
swarthy  lads,  on  to  the  dance). 

6.  "  Roslein  dreie  in  der  Reihe"  (There  stood 
three  rosebuds  in  a  row). 

7.  "  Kommt    dir    manchmal    in    den     Sinn" 
(Oftentimes  there  comes  to  mind). 


Appendix  A 


104.  "  Five  Songs  "  for  Mixed  Voices,  a  capella — 

No.  I.  Nachtwache  :    "  Leise    Tone    der    Brust " 
(Night    song:    "Gentle    tones    stir    the 
„    2.  Nachtwache  :    "  Ruhn  sie  ?    ruft  das  Horn 
des  Wachters  "  (Rest  ye  ?  calls  the  watch- 
man's horn). 
„    3.  "  Letztes  Gliick":  "  Leblos  gleitet  Blatt  um 
Blatt"  (Last  hope  :  "  Lifeless  slips  blade 
on  blade"). 
„    4.  "Verlorene  Jugend":  "BraustenalleBerge" 

(Lost  youth  :  "Over  the  hills"). 
„     5.  "Im    Herbst":    "Ernst    ist   der   Herbst" 
(Autumn  :  "  Sober  is  the  autumn  "). 
109.  "  Drei    Deutsche    Fest- und    Gedenkspriiche "   (Three 
German    festival    thanksgiving    sentences),    for 
Double  Chorus,  a  capella. 
no.  "Three    Motets"    for    Four-   and    Eight-part    mixed 
Chorus,  a  capella. 
No.  I.  "  But  I  am  poor." 
,,    2.  "Thou  poor  vain  world  deludest  me." 
„    3.  "When  we  in  deep  distress  and  grief." 

112.  "Six   Gipsy  Songs"  for  Four  Voices   (S.,  A.,  T.,  B), 

a  capella. 
No.  I.  "Sehnsucht"  (Longing). 
„    2.  "Nachtens"(At  Night). 
„  3-6.  "  Vier  Zigeunerlieder  "  (Four  Gipsy-songs). 

113.  "Thirteen  Canons"  for  Female  Voices  and  Piano. 

Without  Opus  Number. 

"  Fourteen  German  Folk-songs  "  for  Four-part  Chorus 


Book  I. 

No.  I.  "  Von  edler  Art  "  (Of  noble  race). 
„    2.  "  Mit  Lust  that  ichausreiten"  (Lustily  would 

I  ride  forth). 
„     3.  "  Bei  nachtlicher  Weil  "  (During  the  night). 
„     4.  "Vom  heiligen  Martyrer,  Emmerano,  Bis- 


Opus  chofif  von  Regensburg"  (The  holy  martyr, 

Emmerano,  Bishop  of  Regensburg). 
No.  5.  "  Taublein  vveiss  "  (O  little  white  dove). 
„    6.  "Ach  lieber  Herre,  Jesu  Christ"  (O  dearest 

„    7.  "  Sankt  Raphael  "  (Saint  Raphael). 

Book  II. 

No.  I.  "  In  stiller  Nacht "  (In  night's  still  calm). 
„     2.  "Abschiedslied"  (Farewell). 
„     3.  "  Der  todte  Knabe  "  (The  dead  youth). 
„    4.  "  Die  Wollust  in  die  Mayer  "  (The  pleasures 

of  May). 
.,     5.  "  Morgengesang  "  (Morning  song). 
„    6.  "  Schnitter  Tod  "  (The  reaper,  Death). 
„     7.  "Der    englische    Jager"    (The     heavenly 

"  Fourteen Volks-Kinderlieder"(Children's  Folk-songs), 
with  Piano — 
No.  I.  "  Dornroschen"  (Thorn  roses). 
„    2.  "Die  Nachtigall"  (The  nightingale). 
„     3.  "  Die  Henne"  (Henny-penny). 
„    4.  "  Sandmannchen  "  (The  little  dustman). 
„     5.  "Der  Mann  "  (Someone). 
„    6.  "  Haidenroslein  "  (Heather  rose). 
„     7.  "  Das  Schlarafifenland"  (The fool's  paradise). 
„    8.  "  Beim  Ritt  auf  dem  Knie  "  (A  ride  on  the 

„    g.  "  Der  Jager  im  Walde"  (The  hunter  in  the 

„  10.  "  Das  Madchenund  die  Hasen"  (The  maiden 

and  the  hares). 
„  II.  "  Wiegenlied  "  (Cradle  song). 
„  12.  "Weihnachten"  (Christmas). 
„  13.  "  Marienwiirmchen"  (Ladybird). 
„  14.  "  Dem  Schutz  Engel"  (The guardian  angel). 

Vocal— Songs  and  Duets. 

3.  "  Six  Songs  "  for  Tenor  or  Soprano  with  Piano — 

Appendix   A 


No.   I.  "  Liebestreu  "  (Constancy),  (perhaps  better 
known  as  "  O  versenk  "),  .   Robert  Reinick 
„     2.  "  Liebe  und   Friihling"    (Love  and  spring- 
time),  .         .     Hoffviann  von  Fallersleben. 
„     3.  "Liebe  und  Friihling,"  IL 
„     4.  "Lied    aus    dem    Gedicht,    'Ivan'"    (Song 
from  the  poem,  "  Ivan  ")     Von  Bodenstedt. 
„     5.  "  In  der  Fremde"  (In  a  foreign  land) 

Von  Eichendorff. 
„     6.  "Lied"  (Song)       .         •  .     ».  m 

6.  "Six  Songs"  for  Soprano  or  Tenor  with  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Spanisches  Lied  "  (Spanish  song) 

Paul  Heyse. 
,,     2.  "  Der  Friihling"  (The  springtime) 

J.  B.  Rousseau. 
„     3.  "  Nachwirkung"  (Afterward) 

Alfred  Meissner. 
„     4    "  Wie  die  Wolke  nach  der  Sonne"    (Like 
clouds  after  sunshine) 

Hojffmann  von  Fallersleben. 

„     5.  "Juchhe!"  (Hurrah  !)      .         .     R.  Reinick. 

„     6.  "  Nachtigallen    schwingen  "     (Nightingales 

swinging)     .     Hoffmann  von  Fallersleben. 

7.  "  Six  Soiigs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Treue  Liebe  "  (True  love)  .  Ferrand. 
„  2.  "  Parole  "  (The  huntsman)  Vojt  Eichendorff. 
„     3.  "  Anklange  "  (Fragment)  „ 

„     4.  "  Volkslied  "  (Folk-song) . 
,,     5.  "  Die  Trauernde'' (The  mourning  one) 

„     6.  "Heimkehr"  (Return  home)    .         Uhland. 
14.  "Eight  Songs    and    Romances"    for  One  Voice  and 
Piano — 

No    I.  "  Vor  dem  Fenster  "  (Neath  the  window) 

"     2.  "  Vom  verwundeten  Knabe  "  (The  wounded 

youth) Folk-song. 

„     3.  "  Murray's  Ermordung  "  (Murray's  murder). 
Herder.,  '•'■  Stimmen  der  Volker"  {Voices  of 
the  Nations). 



No.  4.  "  Ein  Sonett"  (Sonnet)  Thirteenth  Century. 
„  5.  "Trennung"  (Separation)  .  Folk-song. 
„     6.  "  Gang  zur  Liebsten  "  (Lover's  journey) 

„     7.  "  Stiindchen  "  (Serenade)  .  „ 

„     8.  "Sehnsucht"  (Yearnings)         .  „ 

19.  "  Five  Poems  "  for  One  Voice  with  Piano — 

No.  I.  "Der  Kuss"  (Thekiss)  .  I/olty. 

„     2.  "  Scheiden  und  Meiden"  (Parting)    Uhland. 
„     3.  "In  der  Feme"  (Parted) 
„     4.  "  Der  Schmied  "  (The  forge)    .  „ 

„     5.  "  An  eine  yEolsharfe  "  (yEolian  harp) 


20.  "Three  Duets  for  Soprano  and  Alto"  with  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Weg  der  Liebe  "  (Way  of  love) 

Herder.,  "  Stimtnen  der  Volker." 
„     "Weg  der  Liebe,"  IL 
„     "  Die  Meere  "  (The  two  deeps). 
28.  "  Four  Duets"  for  Alto  and  Baritone  with  Piano — 

No.  I.  "Die  Nonne  und  der  Ritter"  (The  nun  and 

the  knight)    .         .         .      Von  Eichendorff. 

„     2.  "VorderThiir"  (By  the  door)  O/^  C^rwaw. 

„     3.  "  Es  rauschet  das  Wasser"   (The  water  is 

rippling) Goethe. 

„     4.  "  Der  Jager    und   sein    Liebchen "     (The 
hunter  and  his  love) 

Hoffmann  von  Fallersleben. 
yi.  "  Nine  Songs  by  Aug.  von  Platen  and  G.  F.  Daumer  " 
for  One  Voice  with  Piano — 

Book  I. 

No.  I.  "  Wie  rafft  ich  mich  in  die  Nacht "  (How  I 
raved  the  long  night  through)     Von  Platen. 
„     2.  "  Aus  der  Moldau"  (From  the  Moldau) 

„     3.  "  Ich  schleich'  umher  betriibt  und  stumm  " 
(Sad  and  silent  I  steal  about)      Von  Platen. 
,,     4.  "  Der  Strom  "  (The  stream)     .  „ 


Appendix  A 


Book  II. 

No.  5.  "  Wehe,  so  willst   du   mich  wieder"  (Alas, 
and  wilt  thou  once  again)        .    Von  Platen. 
..     6.  ■'  Du    sprichst,    das    ich    mich    tiiuschte  " 
(Thou  speakst,  that  I  might  barter) 

Von  Platen. 
„     7.  "  Bitter  es  zu  sagen"  (Bitter  'tis  to  say) 

Dauf}ter,  after  Hafis. 
„     8.  "  So  stehn  wir"  (So  stand  we) 

Dau7ner,  after  Hafis. 

„     9.  "Wie  bist  du,  meine   Konigen.?"  (How  art 

thou,  my  queen  .?)         Dattmer,  after  Hafis. 

33.  "  Fifteen    Romances  from    L.    Tieck's  Magelone"   for 

One  Voice  with  Piano — 

Book  I. 

No.  I.  "  Keinen  hat  es  noch  gereut"    (None  have 

e'er  repented) 
„     2.  "Traun!     Bogen    und   Pfeil"  (Faith!    bow 

and  arrow). 
„     3.  "Sind  es  Schmerzen,  sind  es  Freuden  "  (Be 

there  pain  or  be  there  pleasure). 

Book  II. 

,,     4.  "  Liebe  kam  aus  fernen  Linden  "  (Love  came 

from  far-off  lindens). 
„     5.  "  So  willst  du  des  armen  "  (So  wilt  thou  this 

poor  one). 
„    6.  "Wie  soil  ich  die  Freude"  (How  shall  I  the 


Book  III. 

„     7.  "  War  es  dir "  (Was  it  for  thee). 
,,     8.  "  Wir  miissen  uns  trennen  "  (We  must  part). 
„     9.  "  Ruhe,  Siisse-liebchen"  (Rest,  sweet  love). 



Book  IV. 

No.  lo.  "  So  tonet  denn"  (So  sound  then). 
„  II.  "Wie  schnell  verschwindet "  (How  quickly 

,,  12.  "Muss  es  eine  Trennung  geben"  (Must  we 


Book   V. 
„  13.  "Geliebter,  wo  zaudert  dein  arrender  Fuss" 

(Beloved,  why  tarriest  thou). 
„  14.  "Wie   froh   und   frisch"  (How   bright  and 

„  15.  "Treue    Liebe   dauert    lange"    (True  love 
grieves  long). 
43.  "  Four  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano- 
No.  I.  "Von  ewiger  Liebe"  (Love undying) 

Jos.  Wentzig  ( IVendish). 
„     2.  "Die  Mainacht"  (The  May  night) 

Ludwig  Holty. 
„     3.  "  Ich  scheir  mein  Horn"  (1  ring  my  bugle) 

Old  German. 
„    4.  "Das  Lied  vom    Herrn   von   Falkenstein" 
(Lord  Falkenstein's  song) 

from  Uhlands  "  Folk-songs." 

46.  "Four  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Die  Kranze"  (The  garlands) 

Dataller's  " Polydora" 
„     2.  "  Magyarisch"  (Magyar  love-song) 

Ballmer's  "  Polydora." 
„     3.  "  Die  Schale  der  Vergessenheit "  (The  clap 

of  oblivion) Holty. 

„     4.  "An  die  Nachtigall"  (To  the  nightingale) 


47.  "  Five  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Botschaft"  (Message) 

Daumer,  after  Hafis. 
„     2.  "  Liebesgluth  "  (Consuming  love) 

Daumer,  after  Hafis. 
„     3.  *'SonntSig"{Sund2iy)[//iland{'' Folk-songs") 

Appendix  A 


No.  4.  "  C)  liebliclie  Wangen"  (O   fair  cheeks   of 
roses)        .         .         .  Paul  Flcmming. 

„     5.  "  Die  liebende  schreibt  "  (To  the  beloved) 


48.  "  Seven  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "Der  Gang  zum  Liebchen "  (The  watchful 
lover)        .....     Bohemian. 
„     2.  "  Der  Ueberlaufer"  (The  false  love) 

fro/u   "  Das  Knabe7i    M  'u7iderIiorn "  ( The 
Youth's  Enchanted  Horn). 
„     3.  "  Liebesklage   des    Madchens "  (The  maid 
from  '■'■Das  Knaben  Wunderhorn"  {The 
Youth's  Enchanted  Horn). 
„     4.  "Gold  iiberwiegt  die  Liebe"  (Love  betrayed 
for  riches)         ....    Bohemian. 
„     5.  "Trost  in  Thriinen"  (Comfort  in  tears) 

„     6.  "Vergangen  ist  mir  Gliick  und  Heil"  (Of 
every  joy  I  am  bereft)      .         0/d  German. 
„     7.  "  Herbst  Gefiihl"  (Autumnal  gloom) 

A.  F.  von  Schack. 

49.  "  Five  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "Am     Sonntag     Morgen"     (Last     Sunday 

morning)  Paul  Weyse  {Italian  Song-book). 

„     2.  "Anein  Veilchen"  (To  a  violet)         .  H'olty 

„     3.  "Sehnsucht "  (Longings)    .         .  Bohemian. 

„     4.  "Wiegenlied"  (Cradle  song) 

to  B.  F.  in  Vienna. 
„     5.  "Abenddammerung"  (Evening  shadows) 

Adolf  Friedrich  von  Schack. 
57.  "Eight  Songs"  for  Solo  Voice  with  Piano — 
(Words  by  G.  F.  Daumer.) 

Book  I. 
No.  I.  "Von  waldbekrantzter  Hohe"  (From  forest- 
crowned  height). 
„     2.  "Wenn  du  nur  zuweilen"  (Didst  thou  but 
L  161 




No.  3.  "  Es  triiumte  nur"  (Only  in  dreams). 
,,     4.  "Ach,  wende  diesen  Blick"  (Ah,  turn  away 
thy  glance). 

Book  II. 

„  5.  "  In  meiner  Nachte  Sehnen  "  (In  my  nights 
of  longing). 

,,  6.  "Strahlt  zuweilen  auch  ein  mildes  Licht" 
(Sometime  beamed  on  me  a  gentle  light). 

„  7.  "  Die  Schnur,  die  Perl  und  Perlen "  (The 
string  of  precious  pearls). 

,,  8.  "Unbewegte  laue  Luft "  (Thou  gently- 
stirring  zephyr). 

58.  "Eight  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

Book  I. 

No.  I.  "Blinde  Kuh  "  (Blindman's  buff) 

Aug.  Kopisch  {Italian). 

,,     2.  "  Wahrend   des    Regens"   (While   the   rain 

falls)         .....        Kopisch. 

„     3.  "  Die  Sprode  "  (The  prude)        .    Calabriaii. 

„    4.  "  O  komme,  holde  Sommernacht"  (O  come, 

thou  lovely  summer  night)       .     M.  Grohe. 

Book  II. 

„     5.  "  Schwermuth"  (Despair)       Carl  Candidus. 
„     6.  "  In  der  Gasse''  (In  the  street)     Fr.  Hebbel. 
„     7.  "  Voriiber"  (Long  ago)      .         .         „ 
„     8.  "Serenade"       .         .       A.  Fr.  von  Schack. 

59.  "  Eight  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

Book  I. 

No.  I.  "  Damm'rung     senkte     sich     von     Oben " 
(Twilight)         ....  Goethe. 

„     2.  "Auf  dem  See"  (On  the  lake) 

Carl  Sim  rock. 
„  3.  "Regenlied"(  Rain  song) .  Claus  Groth. 
„     4.  "  Nachklange"  (Tears)      .  „ 


Appendix  A 


Book  II. 

No.  5.  '•  Agnes " E.  Morike. 

„     6.  ''Gute  Nacht"  (Good-night)  G  F.  Daumer. 
„     7.  '•  Mein  wundes  Herz"  (Nly  wounded  heart) 

a.  Groth. 
„     8.  "  Dein  blaues  Auge"  (Thy  blue  eye)     „ 
61.  "Four  Duets"  for  Soprano  and  Alto  with  Piano — 
No.  I.  "  Die  Schwestern  "  (The  sisters) 

Ed.  Morike. 
„     2.  "  Klosterfraulein"  (The  convent  wall) 

Just.  Kerner. 
„     3.  "Phanomen"  (Love  hath  not  departed) 

Goethe.,  "  \Vest'6stliche7i  Divan.^'' 
„     4.  '•  Die  Boten  der  Liebe"  (Envoys  of  love) 

Josef  IVenzig  {Bohemian). 
63.  "  Nine  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano  — 

Book  I. 

No.  I.  "  Friihlingstrost  "  (Comfort  in  spring) 

Max  von  Schenkendorf. 
,,     2-  ■' Erinnerung"  (Remembrance) 

Max  von  Schenkendorf. 
„     3.  ■■  An  ein  Bild"  (To  a  portrait) 

iMax  von  Schenkendorf. 
,,     4.  '■  An  die  Tauben"  (To  a  dove) 

Max  von  Schenkendorf. 

Book  II. 

„     5.  "Junge  Liebe"  (Youthful  lays) 

A  fax  von  Schenkendorf. 
„     6.  „  „         II. 

„     7.  "Heimweh"  (Far  from  home)  Claus  Groth. 
„     8.  „  II. 

„   9.         »         HI- 

66.  "Five  Duets"  for  Soprano  and  Alto  with  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Kliinge"  (True  lover's  heart)  Claus  Groth. 
-»  II 




No.  3,  "Am  Strande"  (By  the  summer  sea) 

Hermann  Holty. 
„  4.  "  J iigerlied"  (The  huntsman)  Car/ Ca«^/</«j. 
„     5.  "  Hvit  du  dich"  (Beware) 

Knaben  Wunderbuch. 
69.  "Nine  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano— 

Book  I. 

No.  I.  "Klage"  (Complaint) 

Josef  Wenzig  {Bohemian). 
„     2.  „  „  »  {Slavonian). 

„     3.  "Abschied"  (Parting)      „  {Boheifiian) 

„     4.  "Das  Liebsten  Schwur"  (The  lover's  vow) 

Josef  Wenzig  {Bohe7nian). 
„     5.  "Tambourliedchen"  (Drummer's  song) 

Carl  Candidiis. 
Book  II. 
„     6.  "  Vom  Strande"  (On  the  shore) 

Vo7i  Eichendorff,  after  the  Spanish. 
„  7.  "Ueberdie  See  "(Over  the  sea)  Crtr/Ze;«fX'^. 
„  8.  "Salome"  ....  Gottfried  Keller. 
„     9.  "Madchenfluch"  (Maiden's  curse) 

Kapper.^  from  Servian. 

70.  "  Four  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "Im  Garten  am  Seegestade  "  (The  garden 
by  the  sea)      .         .        .        Carl  Lemcke. 
„    2.  "  Lerchengesang  "  (Skylark's  song) 

Carl  Candidus. 
„    3.  "Serenade"       ....  Goethe. 

„    4.  "Abendregen  "  (Evening  shower) 

Gottfried  Keller. 

71.  "  Five  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Esliebt  sichsolieblich  im  Lenze"(0  May, 
love  is  sweet  in  thy  bowers)    .  Heine. 

„    2.  "  An  den  Mond  "  (To  the  moon) 

Carl  Simrock. 

„     3.  "  Geheimniss "  (Secret)      .     Carl  Candidus. 

„    4.  "Willst  du,  das  ich  geh"  (V^ilt  thou  have 

me  ""o)    ....         Carl  Lemcke. 


Appendix  A 


No.  5.  "  Minnelied  "(Love  song)  .         .         .Holly. 
72.  "  Five  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Alte  Liebe"  (Old  love)    .     Carl  Candidus. 
„    2.  "  Sommerfaden  "  (Summer  gossamers) 

Carl  Catididus. 
„    3.  "  O  kiihler  Wald  "  (O  forest  cool) 

CI.  Brenlano. 
„  4.  "Verzagen"  (Lament)  .  Carl Lenicke. 
„     5.  "  Uniiberwendlich  "  (The  untameable) 

75.  "Four  Ballads  and  Romances"  for  Two  Voices  and 
Piano — 
No.  I.  (Alto  and  Tenor)  "  Edward" 

Herder's  "  Volkslicdcr. " 

„    2.  (Soprano  and  Alto)  "Outer  Rath"  (Good 

counsels)  .         .         Knaden  IVunderbuck. 

„     3.  (Soprano  and  Alto)  "  So  lass  uns  wandern  " 

(So  let  us  wander)     .  We7izig  {Bohemiaii). 

„    4.  (Two  Sopranos)  "  Walpurgisnacht "  (Wal- 

purgis  night)    .         .        Willibald  Alexis. 

84.  "  Songs  and  Romances  "  for  One  or  Two  Voices  and 

Piano — 
No.  I.  "  Sommerabend  "  (Summer  evening) 

Hans  Schmidt. 
„    2.  "  Der  Kranz"  (The  wreath)       „  „ 

„     3.  "  In  die  Beeren  "  (Amongst  the  berries) 

Ha?is  Schmidt. 
„    4.  "Vergebliches  StJindchen  "  (Vain  suit) 

Lower  RJienish  Folk-song. 
„     5.  "  Spannung  "  (Strained  greetings) 

Lower  Rhetiish  Folk-song. 

85.  "  Six  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Sommerabend  "(Summer  evening) .  i%/«^. 
„    2.  "  IMondenschein "  (Moonlight)  .      „ 

„     3.  "  Mjidchenlied"  (Maiden's  song) 

Sieqfried  Kappcr  {Servian). 
„    4.  "Ade"  (Adieu) 

Sie^ried  Kapper  {Bohetnian). 
165  ' 



No.  5.  "  Friihlingslied  "  (Spring  song) 

Emmanuel  Geibel. 
„    6.  "Waldeseinsamkeit"  (Forest  loneliness) 

86.  "  Six  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano- 
No.  I.  "Therese"         .         .         .    Gottfried  Keller. 
„    2.  "  Feldeinsamkeit  "  (In  summer  fields) 

Hcrmafin  Albners. 
„    3.  "  Nachtwandler  "  (The  sleeper) 

Max  Kalbeck. 
„     4.  "  Ueber  die  Haide  "  (Over  the  moor) 

Theodor  Storm. 
„  5.  "  Versunken"  (Engulfed)  .  Felix  Sc/iuman?t. 
„     6.  "  Todessehnen  "  (Shadows  of  death) 

Max  von  ScJie7ikendorf. 
gi.  "Two    Songs"   for   Alto,  with  Viola    Obbhgato    and 
Piano — 
No.  I.  "Gestillte  Sehnsucht  "  (Longing  at  rest) 

Friedrich  Riickert. 
„     2.  "  Geistliches  Wiegenlied  "  (Virgin's  cradle 
song)  Enunanuel Geibel^after Lope de  Vega. 
94.  "  Five  Songs  "  for  Low  Voice  and  Piano — 
No.  I.  "  Mit  vierzig  Jahren  "  (At  forty) 

Friedrich  Riickert. 
„    2.  "  Stieg'auf,  geliebter  Schatten "  (Arise,  be- 
loved spirit)    .         .         .  Friedrich  Halm. 
„     3.  "  Mein  Herz  ist  schwer"  (My  heart  is  sad) 

Emmanuel  Geibel. 
„    4.  "  Sapphisches  Ode"  (Sapphic  ode) 

Hans  Schmidt. 
„     5.  "  Kein   Haus,  keine  Heimath"  (No  house, 
no  home)  ,  Friedrich  Hahn^from  a  drama. 
95.  "  Seven  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 
No.  I.  "  Das  Madchen  "  (The  maiden  ") 

Sieg.  Kapper  {Servian). 
„     2.  "  Bei    dir    sind    meine    Gedanken "    (My 
thoughts  are  of  thee)     .    Friedrich  Halm. 
„     3.  "  BeimAbschied"  (At  parting)    „  ,, 

„     4.  "  Der  Jiiger  "  (The  hunter)  „  „ 


Appendix  A 


No.  5.  "  Vorschneller  Schwur"  (Rash  vow) 

K upper  {Servian). 
„    6.  "  Miidchenlied  "  (Maiden's  song) 

Paul  Ilcyse  {Italian). 

„    7.  "  Schon  war,  das  ich  dir  weihte"  (Fine  was 

the  gift  I  gave  thee)       .         .        Daumer. 

96.  "  Four  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Der  Tod,  das  ist  die  kiihle  Nacht"  (Death 

is  a  cool  night)       ....  Heine. 

„     2.  "  Wir  wandelten  "  (We  wandered)  Daumer. 

„     3.  "  Es  schauen  die  Hlumen"  (The  flowers  are 

peeping) Heine. 

„    4.  '•  Meerfahrt"  (At  sea)       .         .         .       „ 

97.  "  Six  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "Nachtigall"  (Nightingale)       .  C.Reinhold. 
„     2.  "  Auf  dem  Schiffe  "  (A  birdhng  flew) 

C.  Reinhold. 
„    3.  "  Entfuhrung  "  (O  Lady  Judith) 

Willibald  Alexis. 

„     4.  "  Dort    in    den  Weiden "  (There   'mid   the 

willows)  .    Lower  RhenisJi  Folk-song. 

„     5.  "  Komm  bald  "  (Come  soon)      Claus  Groth. 

,,    6.  "  Trennung "  (Parting)      .         .        Suabian. 

105.  "Five  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  Wie  Melodien  zieht  es  mir"(Like  music 
„    2.  "  Immer    leiser    wird    mein     Schlummer" 

(Ever  lighter  grew  my  slumbers). 
„    3.  "  Klage  "  (Lament). 

„    4.  "  Auf  dem  Kirchhof"  (In  the  churchyard). 
„     5.  "Verrath  "  (Treachery). 

106.  "  Five  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  StJindchen"  (Serenade). 
„    2.  "Auf  dem  See"  (On  the  sea). 
,,    3.  "  Es  hing  der  Reif "  (There  hung  a  wreath). 
„    4.  "Meine  Lieder"  (My  songs). 
,,     5.  "  Ein  Wanderer"  (A  wanderer). 

107.  "Five  Songs  "  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 

No.  I.  "  An  die  Stolze  "  (Pride). 



No.  2.  "  Salamander." 
„    3.  "Das     Madchen     spricht "     (The     maiden 

„    4.  "  Maienkiitzchen  "  (May  kittens). 
„     5.  "  Madchenlied  "  (Maiden's  song). 
121.  "Four  Serious  Songs"  for  One  Voice  and  Piano — 
(The  words  are  taken  from  the  Bible.) 
No.  I.  "  Denn  es  gehet  dem  Menschen." 
„     2.  "  Ich  wandte  mich  und  sahe." 
„     3.  "  O  Tod,  wie  bitter." 

„    4.  "  Wenn  ich  mit  Menschen-und  mit  Engels- 

zungen "     (Though     I     speak    with     the 

tongues  of  men  and  of  angels). 

"  Mondnacht  "  ("  Es  war,  als  hatte  der  Himmel "),  Song 

without  Opus  number,  for  High  Voice  and  Piano. 

Chamber  Music  (without  Piano). 
18.  "  First  Sextet  for  Strings  "  in  B  flat. 

Allegro  ma  non  troppo — Tema  con  Variazioni — 
Scherzo  {allegro  molio) — Rondo  {poco  allegretto 
e  gracioso). 
36.  "  Second  Sextet  for  Strings  "  in  G  major. 

Allegro  non  troppo — Scherzo  {allegro  non  troppo) — 
Poco  adagio — Poco  allegro. 
51.  "  Two  Quartets  f)r  Strings'' — 

No.  I  in  C  minor. — Allegro — Romanze  {poco  adagio) 
— Allegretto  molto  moderato  e  comodo — Un  poco 
piu  animato — Allegro. 
No.  2  in  A  minor.  —  Allegro  non  troppo — An- 
dante moderato — Quasi  Minuetto,  moderato — 
Allegretto  vivace — Finale  {allegro  non  assai). 
67.  "  Third  Quartet  for  Strings  "  in  B  flat. 

Vivace— Andante — Agitato  {allegretto    non   troppo) 
— Poco  allegretto  con  Variazioni — Doppio   movi- 
88.  "  Quintet  for  Strings"  in  F  major. 

Allegro  non  troppo  ma  con  brio — Grave  appassion- 
ato— Finale  {allegro  encrgico). 
III.  "Second  Quintet  for  Strings"  in  G  major. 

Appendix   A 

115.  "Quintet  for  Clarionet  and  Strings"  in  B  minor. 

Piano,  with  other  Instruments. 
8.  "Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  'Cello"  in  B. 

Allegro  con  moto— Scherzo  {allegro  tnoltd) — Adagio 
non  troppo — Finale  {allegro  7nolio  agitato'). 

25.  "First  Quartet  for  Piano  and  Strings"  in  G  minor. 

Allegro — Intermezzo  {allegro  non  troppo) — Andante 
con  moto — Rondo  alia  Zingarese. 

26.  "Second     Quartet    for    Piano    and    Strings"    in    F 

Allegro   non  troppo— Poco  adagio — Scherzo  {poco 
allegro — Finale  {allegro). 
34.  "  First  Quintet  for  Piano  and  Strings  "  in  F  minor 

Allegro   non   troppo— Andante   un  poco   adagio — 
Scherzo  (a//<?^'r^)— Finale  {poco  sostenuto — allegro 
non  troppo). 
38,  "Sonata  for  Piano  and  Violoncello"  in  E  minor. 

Allegro  non  troppo — Allegretto  quasi    moderato — 
40.  "  Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  Waldhorn  (or  Cello  or 
Viola)"  in  E  flat. 

Andante  —  Scherzo — Adagio     mesto — Finale  {alle- 
gro con  brio). 
60,  "Third  Quartet  for  Piano  and  Strings  "  in  C  minor. 

Allegro  non  troppo — Scherzo  (a//,?o'rci)-  Andante — 
Finale  {allegro  comodo). 
78.  "  Sonata  for  Piano  and  Violin"  in  G. 

Vivace   ma    non    troppo — Adagio — Allegro    molto 
87.  "  Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  'Cello"  in  C. 

AUegio — Theme  and  Variations — Scherzo  {presto) 
— Finale  {allegj'o  giocoso). 
99.  "Second  Sonata  for  Piano  and  Violoncello"  in  F. 

Allegro    vivace — Adagio   affettuoso — Allegro    pas- 
sionate— Allegro  molto. 
100,  "  Second  Sonata  for  Piano  and  Violin  "  in  A. 

Allegro    amabile  —  Andante    tranquillo  —  \' ivace 
{(ilternativo) — Allegretto  grazioso  {quasi  andante). 


loi.  "Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  'Cello"  in  C  minor. 

Allegro    energico  —  Presto    non    assai  —  Andante 
grazioso — Allegro  molto. 
io8.  "  Third  Sonata  for  Piano  and  Violin  "  in  D  minor. 
114.  "Trio  for  Piano,  Violin  and  Clarionet  (or  Alto)"  in 

A  minor. 
120.  "Two  Sonatas  for  Piano  and  Clarionet  (or  Alto)" — 
No.  I  in  F  minor. 
No.  2  in  E  flat. 


15.  "  First  Concerto  for  Piano  and  Orchestra  "  in  D  minor 

Maestoso — Adagio — Rondo  {allegro  non  troppo). 
77.  "Concerto  for  Violin  and  Orchestra"  in  D  major. 

Allegro  non  troppo — Adagio — Allegro  giocoso  ma 
non  troppo  vivace. 
83.  "  Second  Concerto  for  Piano  and  Orchestra  "  in  B  flat. 
Allegro    non    troppo — Allegro    appassionato — An- 
dante— Allegretto  grazioso. 
102.  "  Double  Concerto  for  Violin  and  'Cello  and  Orchestra  " 
in  A  minor  (C). 

Piano  Solos. 

1.  "  Sonata  for  Pianoforte  "  in  C. 

Allegro — Andante  (introducing  an  Old  German 
Love  Song,  "  Verstohlen  geht  der  Mond  auf ") — 
Scherzo  {allegro  molto  e  con  fuocd) — Finale 
{allegro  confuoco). 

2.  "  Sonata  for  Pianoforte  "  in  F  sharp  minor. 

Allegro  non  troppo  ma  energico — Andante  con 
espressione — Scherzo  {allegro) — Finale  {Intro- 
duction^ Sostenuto — Allegro  non  troppo  e  riibato). 

4.  "  Scherzo  for  Pianoforte  "  in  E  flat  minor. 

5.  "  Sonata  for  Pianoforte  "  in  F  minor. 

Allegro  maestoso — Andante  espressivo — Scherzo 
{allegro  energico) — Intermezzo  (Riickblick — an- 
dante molto)  —  Finale  {allegro  moderato  ma 


Appendix  A 


9.  "Variations  for  Piano"  on  a  Theme  by  Schumann. 
10.  "Four    Ballads   for   Piano"    in  D  minor,  D,  B,  and 

B  minor. 
21.  No.  I.  "Variations  on  an  Original  Theme  in  D." 

„    2.  "Variations    (and    Unale)   on    a    Hungarian 
Theme  in  D." 
24.  "  Variations  and  Fugue  on  a  Theme  by  Hiindel." 
35.  "  Studies  for  Piano"  (Variations  on  a  Theme  by  Paga- 

nini),  in  two  books. 
76.  "  Eight  Piano  Pieces  "  (in  two  books)— 

Nos.  I,  2,  5,  and  8.  Capriccios  (F  flat  minor, 

B  minor,  C  flat  minor,  and  C). 
„       3,  4,  6,  and    7.    Intermezzi  (A  sharp, 
B,  A,  and  A  minor). 
79.  "Two  Rhapsodies,"  No.  i  in  B  minor,  No.  2  in  B  flat. 

116.  "  Fantasien  "  (in  two  books) — 

Book  I.  "  Capriccios  "  in  D  minor  and  G  minor. 
"  Intermezzo"  in  A  minor. 
„  II.  "  Intermezzi"  in  E,  E  minor,  and  E. 
"Capriccio"  in  D  minor. 

117.  "Three  Intermezzi  "in  E  flat,  B  flat  minor,  and  C  sharp 


118.  "  Six  Piano  Pieces  " — 

"  Intermezzi "  in  A  minor.  A,  F  minor,  and  E  flat  minor. 
"  Ballade"  in  G  minor. 
"  Romance"  in  F. 

119.  "  Four  Piano  Pieces"— 

"  Intermezzi "  in  B  minor,  E  minor,  and  C. 
"Rhapsodic"  in  E  flat. 
"  Etude,  after  Chopin  "  (in  F  minor). 
"Etude,  after  Weber"  (Rondo  in  C). 
"Presto,    from    J.    S.    Bach"    (Sonata    in    G    minor    tor 

Violin  alone). 
"  Presto,  from  J.  S.  Bach,"  for  left  hand  alone. 
"  D  minor   Chaconne,   from  J.    S.    Bach."  for   left    hand 

alone  (the  famous  Chaconne  for  Violin  alone). 
"  Gavotte  in  A,  from  Gliick  "  ("  Paride  ed  Elena"). 
"  Abendregen,"  Blatter  fur  Hausmusik. 
"  51  Uebungen"  (Exercises  or  Studies),  (published  in  1893). 



Piano,  Four  Hands. 

23.     "  Variations  on  a  Theme  by  Schumann." 

34B.  "  Sonata  for  Two  Pianos,"  from  Op.  34. 

39.     "  Waltzes." 

52.     "  Liebeslieder  (Love  Song)  Waltzes,"  with  Four  Voices 

(S.,  A.,  T.,  B.)  ad  libitum. 
52A.  "Liebeslieder  (Love  Song)  Waltzes"  (without  Voice 

56B.  "  Variations  on  a  Theme  by  Haydn,"  from  Op.  56A. 
65.    "  Neue  (New)  Liebeslieder  Waltzes,"  with  Four  Voices 

(S.,  A.,  T.,  B.)  ad  libitum. 
"  Hungarian  Dances,''  in  four  books. 


"  Fugue  in  A  flat  minor." 

"  Chorale— Prelude  and  Fugue,  '  O  Traiirigkeit,'"  in 
A  minor. 

Besides  these  original  works  and  arrangements,  Brahms 
edited  the  "  Piano  Compositions  of  Fr.  Couperin  "  for  Chry- 
sander's  "  Denkmaler  der  Tonkunst"  (Monuments  of  the 
Tonal  Art),  revised  Mozart's  "  Requiem  "  for  the  new  edi- 
tion of  Mozart's  works,  was  concerned  in  the  complete 
edition  of  Chopin's  works,  and  edited  three  posthumous 
works  of  Schubert,  and  the  "  Scherzo"  and  "  Presto  Appas- 
sionato "  of  Schumann.  He  also  edited  Bach's  works,  and 
amplified  the  figured-bass  of  two  Sonatas  for  Violin  and 
Piano  by  C.  P.  E.  Bach  with  rare  insight  and  self-restraint, 
so  that  they  are  a  model  of  what  such  work  ought  to  be,  and 
furnished  the  accompaniments  to  an  edition  of  Handel's 
Vocal  Duets. 


Appendix   B 


The  amount  of  literature  of  a  permanent  value  about 
Brahms  is  small,  if  we  except  a  considerable  quantity  of 
critical  material — reviews  and  similar  writings  in  the  form 
of  essays  and  magazine  articles.  The  appended  list  makes 
no  pretence  of  completeness,  especially  as  it  includes  no 
critical  or  biographical  works  or  essays  that  appeared  prior 
to  1880,  about  which  time  Erahms'  fame  may  be  said  to 
have  been  incontestably  established.  Nor  is  the  list  of 
publications  in  foreign  tongues  large,  though  there  is  such  a 
scarcity  of  really  valuable  matter  in  the  English  language 
that  the  author  has  felt  it  advisable  to  include  such  as  have 
been  useful  to  him  in  the  preparation  of  this  volume. 
The  list  is  as  follows  : — 

Bie,    Oscar — "  History   of    the    Pianoforte   and    Pianoforte 

Players,"  London,  1899. 
Charles,  M. — "Zeitgenossische  Tondichter,"  Leipsic,  1888. 
Conrat,  Hugo — "Johannes  Brahms  :  Souvenirs  personales" 

{La  Revue  musicale,  Paris,  1904). 
Deiters,    Hermann — "Johannes    Brahms"   (2    vols.),    1880. 

(Translated  and  condensed  into  one  volume  by  Rosa 

Dietrich,  Albert,  and  Widmann,  Jos.  V. — "Recollections  of 

Johannes  Brahms,"  London,  1899.     (Translated  bv  D. 

E.  Hecht.) 
Ehlert,  Louis — "  From  the  Tone  World,"  New  York,  1884. 
Ferris,  George  T. — "Great  German  Composers,"  New  York, 

Finck,    Henry   Theophilus. — "Songs    and    Song   Writers," 

New  York,  1900. 
Goepp,  P.  H. — "  Symphonies  and  Their  Meaning"  (Second 

Series),  Philadelphia,  1902. 


Hadow,   W.    H.— "Studies    in    Modern    Music"   (Second 

Series),  London,  1894. 
Henschel,    Georg — "  Personal    Recollections   of    Johannes 

Brahms"   {Century   Mai^azine,  Vol.  LXI.,  New  York, 

Heuberger,  R. — "My   Early  Acquaintance  with    Brahms" 

{Musical  World,  Vol.  III.,  Boston,  1903). 
Hohenemser,  R. — "Johannes  Brahms  und  die  Volksmusik" 

{Die  Musik,  Vol.  II.,  Berlin). 
Hubbard,    Elbert— "Johannes    Brahms"   (Little    Journeys 

Series),  East  Aurora,  New  York,  1901. 
Huneker,    James—"  Mezzotints    in    Modern    Music,"   New 

York,  1899. 
Imbert,  H. — "Profils  de  musiciens,"  Paris,  1888. 

"Portraits  et  etudes,"  Paris,  1894. 

JuUien,  Adolphe — "Johannes  ^ra.hms^'' {Revue ijtiernationale 

de  musique,  Paris,  1898). 
Kalbeck,    Max— "Johannes    Brahms"    (2    vols.),    Vienna. 

(The  first  volume,  giving  the  composer's  life  up  to  the 

year  1862,  has  just  appeared  in  the  German  language.) 
Kelterborn,    Louis — "Johannes    Brahms"    {Fatuous    Com- 
posers attd  Their  Works,  Boston). 
Klein,    Hermann— "Thirty     Years     of    Musical     Life     in 

London,"  New  York,  1903. 
Kobb^,    Gustav— "Johannes    Brahms"    {Looker- Ott,    New 

York,  1896). 
Kohler,   Louis— "Johannes  Brahms  und  seine   Stellung  in 

der  Musikgeschichte,"  Hanover. 
La    Mara— "Johannes    Brahms"    {Musikalische    Studien- 

kopfe,  Book  III.,  Leipsic). 
Law,    Frederic   S.— "Johannes    Brahms"  {Musician,   Vol. 

IX.,  Boston,  1904). 
Maitland,    J.    A.    Fuller— "Masters    of    German    Music," 

London,  1894. 
Marsop,  P.— "Musikalische  Essays,"  Berlin,  1899. 
Mason,  Daniel  Gregory—"  From  Grieg  to  Brahms,"  New 

York,  1902. 
Mason,  Dr  William—"  Memories  of  a  Musical  Life,"  New 

York,  1900. 
Musician,  77/^— "  Brahms  Number,"  Philadelphia,  1898. 


Appendix   B 

Musik,  i9;V— "Brahms  Number,"  Berlin,  1903. 

Neue  J//<!j/y{:-Ze7/««^— Stuttgart-Leipzig,  Nos.  9,  13,  18,  20, 

Newmarch,  Rosa— "Tchaikovsky  :  His  Life  and  Works." 
Niemann,  W — "Johannes  Brahms  als  Klavier  Komponist" 

{Die  Musi/c,  Vol.  IL,  Berlin,  1904). 
Potocka,   Countess  Angela— "  Theodor    Leschetizky,"  New 

York,  1903. 
Riemann,     Dr     Hugo— "Johannes     Brahms"     {Beriihmte 

Musfkcr,  Berlin,  1899). 
"Johannes     Brahms"    {Harmonie     Verlagsgeschichte, 

Rottger,    B.  — "  Der    Entwickelungsgang     von     Johannes 

Brahms"  {Neue  Musik-Zcitioig,  Vol.  XXV.,  1904). 
Runciman,  J.  F.— "  Old  Scores  and  New  Readings,"  London, 

Simrock,  "Johannes  Brahms.     Thematisches  Verzeichniss," 

Berlin,  1887. 
Upton,  George  P.— "Standard  Cantatas,"  Chicago,  1891. 

"Standard  Oratorios,"  Chicago,  1890. 

"Standard  Symphonies,"  Chicago,  1891. 

Vogel,   Bernhard— "Johannes  Brahms.     Sein    Lebensgang 

und  eine  Wurdigung  seine  Werke"  {Mtisikheroen  der 

Neuzeit,  IV.,  Leipsic). 
Widmann,  Jos.  \.—{See  Dietrich). 

Besides  these,  there  are  references,  more  or  less  important, 
in  the  standard  Dictionaries — notably  Grove's,  Riemann's 
and  Baker's — in  practically  all  histories  of  music  a.nd 
biographies  of  musicians  which  touch  upon  the  period 
during  which  Brahms  lived,  and  in  innumerable  sketches 
and  reviews  which  have  appeared  from  time  to  time  in 
magazines,  newspapers  and  the  like. 



Allers,  C.  W,,  73 
Anne  of  Hesse,  60 
Austria,  Emperor  of,  77 

Bach,  139,  146 

Beethoven,  105,  120,  126,  127 

Bie,  Oscar,  125 

Billroth,  Dr,  65,  92,  in 

Brahms,  Elise,  4, 104 

Brahms,  Fritz,  4 

Brahms,  Johann  Jacob,  1-3 

Brahms,  Johanna,  2,  3,  42 

Brahms,  Johannes  :  birth  and  par- 
entage, 1,2;  father's  circum- 
stances, 3  ;  education,  3  ;  his 
brother  and  sister,  4 ;  knocked 
down  by  a  drosky,  5  ;  home  life, 

5  ;  evinces  early  taste  for  music, 

6  ;  musical  teachers,  6  ;  fond  of 
books  and  tin  soldiers,  7  ;  d^but 
as  pianist,  8  ;  tour  with  Eduard 
Remenyi,  8  ;  a  successful  pianist, 
9  ;  extraordinary  memory,  10  ; 
meets  Joachim,  1 1  ;  at  Hanover 
and  Weimar,  11  ;  meets  Liszt, 
12  ;  meets  Schumann  at  Dussel- 
dorf,  14  ;  Dietrich's  opinion  of 
him,  15  :  Schumann's  apprecia- 
tion, 16  ;  in  Leipsic,  18;  first 
works  published,  18,  19;  effect 
of  Schumann's  article,  20 ;  meets 
Rubinstein,  23 ;  mannerisms, 
23,  24  ;  at  Detmold,  25  ;  friend- 
ship   for    Madame   Schumann, 


25,  26 ;  Op.  10  published,  26  ; 
new  compositions,  28  ;  visits 
Switzerland,  29  ;  "  Handel  Vari- 
ations," 29  ;  at  Oldenburg,  30, 
32  ;  goes  to  Vienna,  34  ;  meets 
Wagner,  35 ;  Chorus-master  at 
the  Sing-Akademie,  36  ;  works 
published  in  1863-66,  38-41  ; 
mother's  death,  42 ;  travels, 
44  ;  the  "  German  Requiem," 
45-48  ;  personality,  49  ;  publica- 
tions of  1868-71,  50-54  ;  concert 
directorand  Court  Capellmeister, 
55  ;  enthusiastic  receptions,  56  ; 
decorated  by  King  of  Bavaria, 
57 ;  presented  with  illuminated 
address,  58 ;  popular  with 
children,  59  ;  aristocratic  friends, 
60  ;  at  Sassnitz,  61  ;  produces 
first  Symphony,  62  ;  works  of 
1875-76,  62;  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Music  conferred  by  Cambridge 
University,  63  ;  visits  Italy,  65  ; 
Doctor  of  Philosophy,  66  ;  de- 
clines call  to  London,  68  ; 
friendship  with  Gottfried  Keller, 
69 ;  publications  of  1882-86, 
70,  71  ;  honours,  72  ;  at  Thun, 
72 ;  visitors,  73  ;  in  Italy  with 
Simrock  and  Kirchner,  74 ; 
Italian  tour  with  Widmann,  75, 
76 ;  decorated  by  Emperor  of 
Austria,  77  ;  again  visits  Italy 
with   Widmann,    77  ;    love    of 




Italy  and  Italians,  78,  79  ;  last 
works,  79,  80 ;  last  Italian 
journey,  81 ;  royal  friends,  82  ; 
effect  of  news  of  Madame 
Schumann's  death,  83 ;  last 
public  appearance,  84  ;  death 
at  Vienna,  85  ;  estate  and  heirs, 
85 ;  statue  and  museum,  86  ; 
personal  traits  and  anecdotes, 
87  et  seq. ;  as  a  musician,  ii<)  et 
Bulow,  Von,  20,  71,  126,  131, 

"  Chorale- VoRSPiEL,"  68 
Conrat,  Herr,  84,  88,  in 
Cossell,  Otto,  6 

"  Deutsche  Fest-  und  Gedenk- 

spriiche,"  81 
Dietrich,    Albert,    14,  22,  31-33, 

36,  42,  51,  104 
Dvorak,  65,  1 18,  133 

Ehlert,  Dr  Louis,  38,  142 

Fellinger,  Frau,  103 
Feuerbach,  Anselm,  69 
Finck,  H.  T.,  134,  135 
"  First  Sonata,"  17 
Freitag,  Gustav,  72 

"German  Folk-songs,"  40 
"German    Requiem,"     the,    42, 

45-48,  57,  85,  137,  143 
Germany,  Emperor  of,  72 
Gipsy  Bands,  97 
Goetz,  92,  117 
Gratz  Choral  Society,  99 
Groth,  Klaus,  73 

"  HXndel  Variations,"  29,  33,  36 
Hanslick,  Dr  Edouard,  73,  87,  105 

Hausmann,  Robert,  67,  75,  82 
Haydn,  105 

"  Haydn  Variations,"  56 
Hegar,  Fr.,  40,  81,  82 
Henschel,  Georg,  61,  95,  105 
Herbeck,  55,  58,  65 
Hesse-Barchfeld,  Princess  of,  60 
"  Hungarian  Dances,"  52 

Joachim,  ii,  13,  44,  46,  63,  67, 

Joachim,  Madame,  46 

Kalbeck,  Max,  57,  73 
Keller,  Gottfried,  69 
Kirchner,  29,  30,  74 
"Konig  Hirsch,"  113,  114 
Kreutzer  Sonata,  10 

Leeds  Festival,  100 

Leser,  Fraulein,  22 

"  Liebeslieder  Waltzes,"  51,71 

Liszt,  12,  13,  120,  133 

"  Marienlieder,"  29 
Martucci,  75,  76 
Marxsen,  Eduard,  6,  7 
Mason,  Dr  William,  122 
Meiningen,  Duke  and  Duchess  of, 

81,  82 
Mora,  no,  in 
Mozart,  117 

Niecks,  140 
Nietzsche,  93 
Nissen,  Peter,  2 

"  Paganini  Variations,"  43 
Platen,  Count,  11,  81 
Potocka,  Countess,  96 



Raff,  94 
Reinthaler,  45,  48 
Remenyi,  Eduard,  8-10,  12,  13 
"  Rhapsodic,"  52 
"Rinaldo,"  51,  52 
Rosing,  Frau,  29,  38 
Rubinstein,  23,  94 
Runciman,  J.  F.,  134 

Schubert,  34,  51 

Schumann,  Madame,   15,  21,  25, 

26,  31,  83 
Schumann,    Robert    14,   15,   20, 

21,  23,  25,  38,67 
Simrock,  65,  74 
Stockhausen,  Julius,  24,  41 

Strauss,  Tohann,  103 
Strauss,  Madame,  103 


"  Triumphlied,"  53,  56,  82,  139 
Tschaikowsky,  131 -133 

Verdi,  117 

"  Volks-Kinderlieder,"  41 

Wagner,  35,  74,  115,  116 
Widmann,73,  75.  76, 102,  109-I14 
Wildenbruch,  Ernst  von,  77 





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